The effect of cations and anions of HMW salt mixture for their role on the growth and development of maggots of Bactrocera dorsalis, studied through deletion method, revealed that potassium among seven cations (Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, K, and Na) and iodide, sulphate and chloride among anions (CO3, SO4, PO4, I, F and Cl) were found as the most essential ingredients of an artificial diet for normal growth and development of B. dorsalis. A diet devoid of potassium showed prolonged maggot period (25.15 days), pupal period (16.10 days) and reduced pupal weight (6.92 mg), pupal formation (1.66%), nil adult emergence and lowest growth index (0.07) against the maximum (3.50) in the control. The low pupal period (8.62 days) in the diet without manganese and high pupal formation (50%) in the diet without calcium were observed. The diet devoid of chloride showed no maggot emergence, pupal formation and adult emergence while that without iodide showed pro-longed maggot period of 23.75 and 23.66 days, respectively. The control showed the shortest pupal period (9.75 days) and the highest pupal weight (12.08 mg). The pupal formation was high in the diet without CO3 (61.70%) and PO4 (61.70 %). The overall growth index was high in control (3.60) followed by the diet without CO3.
Key words: Cation, anion, HMW salt mixture, artificial diet, Bactrocera dorsalis
Baskaran V. and Kirti Sharma
Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012
First record of Pandora formicae on ant, Camponotus angusticollis and Batkoa amrascae on white leaf hopper, Cofana spectra in rice agroecosystem of India
Two entomophthoralean fungi, Pandora formicae and Batkoa amrascae were reported for the first time from India as a dominant biocontrol agents of Camponotus angusticollis and Cofana spectra, respectively in rice agroecosystem. The biocontrol potential of B. amrascae studied under field conditions during 2012-2016 showed its ability in drastically reducing the population of C. spectra in rice fields and the nursery and could be used as a potential biocontrol agent against white leaf hopper.
Key words: Entomophthoralean fungi, Pandora formicae, Camponotus, Batkoa amrascae, Cofana spectra
Pankaj Baiswar* and D.M. Firake
Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam – 793 103, Meghalaya, India
*Corresponding Author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Management of san jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus Comstock in apple orchards of Kashmir through horticultural mineral oils
The field experiment, conducted with the objective of examining the efficacy of different concentrations of two oil dormant sprays of Arbofine extra along with standard check (ATSO) to manage san jose scale (Quadraspidiotus Perniciosus Comstock) in delayed dormant season of 2015-16, revealed highest comulative mean mortality of SJS (82.69%) with the application of 2.5 per cent of Arbofine extra followed by 80.71 per cent mortality of SJS with 2.0 per cent of Code-204 as against the standard check (ATSO) applied at 2.5 per cent concentration (80.12%) and the lowest (76.47 per cent) at 1.5 per cent concentration. Two parasitoids, Encarsia pernicious and Aphytis proclia and one predator Chilocorus infernalis were found on SJS twigs from the treated area. Arbofine extra @ 2.5 per cent concentration recorded mean yield (10.0 boxes) of ‘A’ grade followed by 8.33 boxes @ 2.0 per cent concentration.
Key words: Delayed dormant spray, horticulture mineral oil, san jose scale, apple, Kashmir
Muneer Ahmad Sofi* and Zakir Hussain Khan
Division of Entomology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar Campus, Srinagar 190 025
Email : Jabarimuneer@gmail.com
Examination of pure culture of the pathogens collected from the root samples of soybean plants showing typical wilting symptoms revealed that the major pathogens involved in causing root rot complex are Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Rhizoctonia bataticola and Fusarium sp. in northern Karnataka. The pathogenicity studies on susceptible cultivar JS 335 inoculated with all the pathogens revealed maximum percent disease incidence in case of dual inoculation of S. rolfsii + R. bataticola (83.33%) and mixed inoculation of S. rolfsii + R. bataticola + Fusarium sp. (88.50%) followed by dual inoculation of Fusarium sp. + R. bataticola (75%) and S. rolfsii + Fusarium sp. (72.34%).
Key words: Association, root rot complex, soybean, stem fly
Preeti Teli1, Shamarao Jahagirdar1, M.S.L. Rao1 and G.T. Basavaraja2
1Department of Plant Pathology,
2AICRP on Soybean, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India
Unpredictable extreme weather, climate events and natural disasters have the potential to upset the normal life processes of plants, animals and human being. Central Himalayan Region (CHR) is known for its biological richness as well as vulnerability to natural disasters. Focus areas of natural disaster studies are damage to human lives, live stock and property. Plant genetic resources hardly get place in natural disaster management. Keeping the glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) during June 2013 in Kedarnath region of the Uttarakhand province of India in view, the present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the damage to livelihood and plant genetic resources and find out possible solution to conserve the available genetic diversity and minimize the damage to livelihood.
Key words: Climate change; precipitation; germplasm; gene bank; livelihood.
A.K. Trivedi*, S.K. Verma and P.S. Mehta
ICAR-National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, Regional Station Bhowali – 263132, Nainital, (Uttarakhand) India
RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene regulatory mechanism that limits the transcript level by either suppressing transcription (transcriptional gene silencing [TGS]) or by activating a sequence-specific RNA degradation process (posttranscriptional gene silencing [PTGS]). The discovery of RNA silencing via RNAi has facilitated major recent breakthroughs in medicine, veterinary, agriculture, and environmental sciences. As such, the use of RNAi in agricultural fields presents an environmental friendly approach to generate pest- and pathogen-resistant crops. Spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) provides an intelligent method of using double-stranded (ds)RNA as a trigger to silence target genes in pests and pathogens without side-effects like in the case of chemical pesticide use. This review examines the risks associated with accumulation of dsRNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA) in plants and invasive targeted organisms and environmental contamination, transgeneratioal gene silencing, dsRNA fate and future implementation of SIGS.
Key words: RNAi, siRNA, dsRNA, gene silencing, environmental risks
1Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, P. O. Box 2404, Khartoum, Sudan
2Behavioural and Chemical Ecology Department, International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, P. O. Box 30772, Nairobi 00100, Kenya
Investigations carried out at Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Dharwad during the year 2015-16, to assess the influence of different stages of fruit maturity on germination, growth and vigour of papaya (cv. Solo) seedling, revealed that the harvesting of fruit at 3/4 ripe stage significantly increased the germination percentage (48.00%), dry weight of seedling (8.50 mg) and vigour index (1179.55) as compared to fruit harvested at other stages of maturity. Fruit at 3/4 ripe stage also recorded highest 100 seed weight.
Key words: Papaya, stage of maturity, germination, vigour index
Arjun Parab, J.C. Mathad and K.V. Malshe
College of Agriculture, Dharwad, Karnataka
The field experiment, conducted to find out the optimum stage of harvesting of different mesta varieties for obtaining higher yield of quality fibre for three consecutive rainy seasons at the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, showed that mesta crop harvested at maturity gave significantly higher fibre and seed yields compared to those harvested at 20, 30 and 40 days of flowering. For only the fibre purpose, the crop can be harvested at 50 per cent flowering stage. This however gave lower fibre yield than that harvested at maturity. It is advised to harvest the crop at 120-130 days after sowing when, the pod development sets in to get higher fibre yield and fibre equivalent yield.
Key words: Fibre yield, Genotypes, Mesta, Stage of harvest
H.B. Babalad1, A.K. Guggari2 and V.A. Pattanashetti3
1University Library, UAS, Dharwad- 580 005
2Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vijayapur- 586 101
3Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad-580 005
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India
The ethnobotanical survey conducted in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu during April to May 2020 showed that the area segregated for home gardens were slowly occupied by the buildings. Cultural beliefs and vasthusastra, believed in protecting human being from evil eyes, played a major role in the conservation of plants in the home gardens. Besides growing plants for religious offerings, culinary, medicinal, health, and of aesthetic values were also reported. Home gardening during Covid-19 lock down worked as a stress buster in men, women and children.
Key words: Home gardens, evil eye, vasthusastra, stress buster
Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, SRM University of Science & Technology, Kattankulathur-603203, Chennai, India
The investigations, conducted during the year 2018-19 at Mango Research Sub-Centre, Rameshwar, Tal. Deogad, Dist. Sindhudurg (Maharashtra), located on hard lateritic rocky area, with five girdling time treatments viz., girdling in second fortnight of August (T1), girdling in first fortnight of September (T2), girdling in second fortnight of September (T3), girdling in first fortnight of October (T4) and control (no girdling) (T5), showed early initiation of flowering at 43rd standard meteorological week with maximum flowering intensity (63.75%) and highest hermaphrodite flower (9.40%) when girdling was done in first fortnight of September (T2). This treatment also recorded highest number of fruits (149.25 fruits tree-1), yield kg tree-1 (32.68) and t/ha-1 (3.27) than against lowest of 101.25, 22.31 and 2.23 of the respective parameters in the control.
Key words: Mango, girdling, flowering, yield
K.V. Malshe1, P.M. Haldankar2 and Y.R. Parulekar3
Mango Research Sub-Centre, Rameshwar, Deogad, Dist. Sindhudurg 416806 (Maharashtra)
1Jr. Horticulturist, Mango Research Sub-Centre, Rameshwar, Deogad, Dist. Sindhudurg 416806 (MS)
2Director of Research, Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Ratnagiri 415712
3Assistant Professor, College of Horticulture, Dapoli, Ratnagiri 415712
Email : email@example.com
Laboratory experiment conducted with the objective of utilizing fruit and vegetable wastes and by-products viz., mango stone, citrus and mixed fruit peels, mosambi peel, banana pseudo-stem cuttings and cauliflower leaves, left over in the open in the fruit and vegetable mandies and processing industries or thrown in rivers for enzyme production showed highest pectinase, cellulose and amylase activity of 0.7605, 021465 and 0.3174 U µmol m1-1 min-1 in mosambi peel on 7th day of Laetobacillus plantarum inculation and 05289 & 0.5218, 0.4543 & 0.4314 and 0.4424 & 0.3626 U m-1 min-1 in the mango waste after 13 and 28 days of L. plantarum inoculation, respectively. The Lactobacillus counts were highest (>108) in animal feed from mixed fruit pomace and mango stone waste till 13 days of incubation.
Key words: Enzyme, cellulase, pectinase, amylase, fruits, vegetables, waste
Neelima Garg*, Balvindra Singh, Supriya Vaish and Sanjay Kumar
Division of Post Harvest Management, ICAR-CISH, Lucknow
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a well known source of ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds and organic acids. Both ascorbic acid and phenolic components are powerful antioxidants and organic acids impart flavour in fruits. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, caffeic acid, ellagic acid and p-coumaric acid as phenolic components and ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid and malic acid as organic acids were identified in fruits of six guava varieties at edible ripe stage using HPLC-PDA. Maximum amount of ascorbic acid (234.80 mg 100g-1) was recorded in Dhawal followed by Allahabad Safeda (198.80 mg 100g-1). Among the phenolic compounds, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid and catechin were the predominant ones. Maximum amounts of gallic acid (8.00 mg 100g-1), chlorogenic acid (9.00 mg 100g-1) and epicatechin (6.00 mg 100g-1) were detected in Shweta. Lalit had maximum amounts of catechin, ellagic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid (6.00, 5.93, 2.46 and 0.90 mg 100g-1, respectively). Citric acid was the major organic acid noticed in guava fruits distantly followed by tartaric acid. Lalima contained maximum amounts of citric acid (460.00 mg 100g-1) and malic acid (2.50 mg 100g-1). The genotype Sardar possessed maximum amount of tartaric acid (71.00 mg 100g-1) and Dhawal that of oxalic acid (18.50 mg 100g-1). In terms of ascorbic acid, Dhawal and Allahabad safeda were the best varieties for consumption, while Shweta and Lalit were the best varieties to consume having anticancer antioxidant phenolic components.
Key words: Guava, ascorbic acid, organic acids, phenolic components, HPLC-PDA estimation
Anup Kr. Bhattacherjee and Abhay Dikshit
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow – 226101, India
The laboratory experiment conducted with the aim of developing value added products from Peach (Prunus persica), a soft, juicy and fleshy stone fruit, generally consumed as fresh, resulted in development of a schematic model for processing the fruit in preparing a variety of food products. Fresh fruit slices subjected to lactic acid fermentation in brine solution using Lactobacillus sp for two days led to production of probiotic drink having 1.37 × 105 CFU ml-1 living population of Lactobacillus Sp. The left over slices were utilized in the preparation of sweet candy by dipping these in the increasing concentrations of sugar syrup and later drying to an intermediate moisture level of 12 per cent. The excessive softened slices were utilized in preparation of chutney using various spice ingredients. The sugar syrup left was utilized in the preparation of squash, wine and vinegar. Peach probiotic drink so prepared possessed 0.63 per cent lactic acid and 31.5 mg 100 ml-1 phenolics, The wine contained 9.73 per cent ethanol, 10.2 oB TSS, 1.38 per cent acidity and 143.5 mg 100 ml-1 phenolics, 5.41 per cent acetic acid and 96.8 mg 100 ml-1 phenolics. Peach chutney possessed 78.4 mg 100 g phenolics-1. All the products showed good organoleptic acceptability scoring above 7.0 out of total 9.0. The seeds were used for sowing and raising the fruit crop further.
Key words: Peach, probiotic drink, candy, chutney, Lactobacillus
Neelima Garg*, Sanjay Kumar, K.K. Srivastava, Balvindra Singh and Supriya Vaish
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Kakori, Lucknow-226101
Investigations on the impact of cement factories on saffron farming in Kashmir valley, carried out through group discussions among 30 respondents of three saffron growing villages, Khrew, Khanmoh, and Wuyan, revealed that the pollution caused by cement factories immensely affected its corm, stigma and petals resulted into sharp decline in saffron production, productivity, marketing and the industry in particular. The study suggested strict enforcement of environmental policies and procedures by the government pollution management agencies of the area.
Key words: Impact, cemnt factories, saffron
*ICSSR Doctoral Fellow, Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India