Bark eating caterpillar is a polyphagous insect pest causing considerable damage to various fruit crops. Very high incidence of this pest has been noticed in unmanaged guava orchards. Keeping in the view the importance of this pest, different management practices were evaluated under field conditions at ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera farm Lucknow. Among the treatments tested, swabbing of insecticide acephate on guava trunk reduced the bark eating caterpillar infestation effectively with no new ribbon formation by the caterpillar, it was followed by swabbing of profenophos, Beaveria bassiana and combination of dichlorovos sealer cum healer (IIHRproduct) +/- copper oxychloride, respectively. The results of the effect of Beaveria bassiana were most significant in the experiment as it not only reduced the incidence but also colonized in the guava trunk.
Key words: Guava, bark eating caterpillar, Indarbela, management
Gundappa and P.K. Shukla
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow – 226 101, (U.P.), India
Efficacy of botanical insecticides against pod borer (Marucavitrata) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)
The field experiment was conducted during kharif 2016-17 to evaluate botanical insecticides against pod boreron cowpea. Two sprays of insecticides were done at fifteen days interval. The most effective treatment against podborer was Chlorpyriphos 20 EC@ 300g a.i. ha-1 after first spray (1.97, 1.74 and 1.53 larvae m-2 at 3, 5, and 7 days after spray, respectively) and second spray (1.51, 1.54 and 1.93 larvae m-2 at 3, 5 and 7 days after spray, respectively)followed by Neem oil @ 2 per cent first spray (4.30, 4.08 and 3.52 larvae m-2 at 3, 5 and 7 days after spray, respectively)and second spray (3.00, 2.85 and 3.28 larvae m-2 at 3, 5 and 7 days after spray, respectively); and NSKE @ 5 per cent after first spray (4.62, 4.18 and 3.81 larvae m-2 at 3, 5 and 7 days after spray, respectively) and second spray (3.12,3.09 and 3.37 larvae m2 at 3, 5 and 7 days after spray, respectively). The maximum larval population was found in untreated plot. The highest green pod yield of cowpea was recorded in plants sprayed with Chlorpyriphos 20 EC @300 g a.i. ha-1 (53.12 qha-1) followed by Neem oil @ 2 per cent (43.53 qha-1) and NSKE @ 5 per cent (42.11 qha-1), while lowest yield was recorded in untreated control plot (32.16 qha-1).
Key words: Evaluation, cowpea, pod borer, botanical insecticides
N.C. Mandawi, Sarita Sahu, R.K. Mahobia and S.K. Painkra
College of Agriculture and Research Station, Boirdadar, Raigarh (CG), India
Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in mango ecosystem to control mango hopper at pre-bloom stage. Persistence of imidacloprid in soil is well reported. While spraying any insecticide to a tree, some portiondoes come in contact with rhizosphere soil. Hence after spraying at 0.005 per cent to mango (cv. Dashehari) trees, itsresidue was analyzed in rhizosphere soil by HPLC. Soil samples were extracted with acetonitrile by vortexing followed by ultrasonic solvent extraction without any cleanup. Imidacloprid dissipated from its initial deposit of0.760 mg g-1 at zero day to 0.044 mg g-1 after 60 days of spraying in mango orchard soil (Sandy loam). After 60 daysof application, 94.21 per cent of imidacloprid degradation was recorded in soil. The dissipation rate followed pseudofirst-order kinetics in soil with calculated half-life (DT50) value of 17.5 days. Imidacloprid has been found a persistent insecticide in mango orchard soil.
Key words: Imidacloprid, persistence, mango orchard soil
Anup K. Bhattacherjee, Pradeep K. Shukla and Abhay Dikshit
ICAR–Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226101 (U.P.), India
Pests status of coconut in managed and unmanaged garden
The major pests incidence and intensity on coconut was recorded during fixed plot survey. It was carried out at bimonthly interval from April, 2018 to February, 2019 at Regional Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri jurisdiction.Two plots were selected for observations, one was well managed (good sanitation, use of fertilizes, etc.) and another unmanaged (poor sanitation, no use of fertilizers). The major pest status in managed garden was minimum which recorded rhinoceros beetle (25.73%), eriophyid mite (41.74%) and mite grade index 0.71. Whereas, maximum infestation of rhinoceros beetle, red palm weevil and eriophyide mite were observed to be 30.31, 0.37, 71.70 per cent, respectively and mite grade index was 1.57 (moderate) in unmanaged garden. The average data of two fixed plots revealed that the incidence of rhinoceros beetle was in the range of 7.64 to 48.00 per cent and maximum infestation was observed in the month of June, 2018 (48.00%), and minimum incidence was observed in February, 2019 (7.64 %). The infestation of red palm weevil and black headed caterpillar were 1.11 and 0.64 per cent only in February, 2019. The infestation of eriophyid mite was in the range of 41.65 to 64.98 per cent and maximum infestation (64.98%) was noticed in the month of April, 2018 and least incidence was observed in October, 2018 (41.65%). The mite damage grade index 1.39(moderate) was recorded in February, 2019. However, lowest MGI (0.67) was observed in October, 2018.
Key wards: Coconut, rhinoceros beetle, red palm weevil, Eriophyid mite, black headed caterpillar
S.M. Wankhede, V.V. Shinde and S.L. Ghavale
AICRP on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri (M.S.), IndiaEmail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Management of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus(Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea through plantextract and carbaryl
Cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, is a major pest of stored cowpea in Eritrea. A comparative study was conducted on the effectiveness of plant extract and chemical as grain protectants against C. maculatus in Hamelmalo Agricultural College. Five hundred gram cowpea was treated with extract of neem leaf 5 per cent, Lantana leaf 5 percent, wood-ash and carbaryl 2 per cent with three replicates. The plant extracts significantly reduced the population of C. maculatus at different days of intervals. At 14 DAT, the mortality by carbaryl was 8.21 per cent, while ash 7.67per cent and control 7.34 per cent showed low mortality, respectively. The mean weight loss of control was 44.9 percent, whereas it was low in ash (41.8%), lantana (38.4%), neem (34.2%) and carbaryl (19.5%). The treated seeds recorded higher germination percentage, while the control had the least germination percentage (40%). Among the botanical protestants neem was found to be effective against the storage pests.
Key words: Cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, neem, lantana, ash, carbaryl
Daniel Brhane, Tufail Ahmad*, Birkti Mehari, Danait Netsereab, Henok Shimendi and Saron Berihu
Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Keren, Eritrea*
Sclerotium delphinii and S. rolfsii are the major soil borne plant pathogens infecting many plant species worldwide.The fungus S. delphinii closely resembles S. rolfsii and causes similar symptoms. The pathogen S. rolfsii differs from S.delphinii in few aspects but still differentiation based on morphology alone is difficult. Isolations were done from the infected soybean plants showing collar rot symptoms. Molecular identification of Sclerotium isolates using 28s rDNA region revealed that both Sclerotium rolfsii and S. delphinii are present in this region.
Key words: Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotium delphinii, 28s rDNA
Pamala Princejayasimha1,2, Pankaj Baiswar1, Rajesh Kumar1, Dipali Majumder2 and Sandip Patra1
1ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam – 793 103, Meghalaya, India
2College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam – 793 103, Meghalaya, India*
The present investigation was carried out to determine the host plant resistance against Rhizoctonia solanicausing foliar blight of soybean in Meghalaya. Twelve isolates were used for molecular characterization using specific primers to determine anastomosis groups and sub-groups. The isolates RL1, Rim_1, RL2, RL4, RL5, RL6, RL7, RL8,RLR, RL9 and RL10 belonged to AG 1-IB. Only one isolate RL3 (product size ~ 265 bp) belonged to AG 1-IA. In advanced varietal trial (AVT) 1, varieties/lines KDS 780 and DSb 28-3 had low natural incidence (2.5 and 7.5%,respectively) and low disease severity (25 and 23.3%, respectively), while varieties/lines JS 20-98 and JS 97-52 had high natural incidence (35 and 52.5%, respectively) and high disease severity (62.7 and 80.9%, respectively). In AVT2, varieties/lines SL 955 and SL 983 had low natural incidence (2.5 and 5%, respectively) and low disease severity (5and 15%, respectively), while varieties/lines Him so 1685 and JS 97-52 had high natural incidence (35 and 47.5%,respectively) and high disease severity (63.6 and 65.1%, respectively). Twenty varieties/lines from AVT 1 and twelve varieties/lines from AVT 2 were used for in vitro screening against R. solani. In AVT 1 (leaves) varieties/lines JS 20-96 and DSb 28-3 were less susceptible (Area under disease progress curve AUDPC = 53.6 for both). In AVT 2 (leaves)varieties/lines DSb 25 and VLS 86 were less susceptible (AUDPC = 37.0 and 49.6, respectively). In AVT 2 (pods)varieties/lines VLS 86 and DSb 23-2 were less susceptible (AUDPC = 119.3 and 101.1, respectively).
Key words: Foliar blight, Glycine max, AG 1-IB, Rhizoctonia solan
R. Laloo1, P. Baiswar1, D. Majumder2 and D.M. Firake1
1ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Umiam-793 103 (Meghalaya), India
2College of Post Graduate Studies, CAU, Umiam-793 103 (Meghalaya), India
Mango wilt disease caused by Ceratocys tis fimbriata has become a serious constraint in most mango growingareas in Uttar Pradesh and in several states in India. Management of mango wilt has been achieved by the application of cultural practices and the foliar and soil application of fungicides. In this study, the sterilized culture filtrate of TH-12 was also evaluated for their efficacy against C. fimbriata through food poison technique under laboratory conditions.All the concentrations of culture filtrate of TH-12 were found effective up to 20 days but no difference in growth of control and 0.15 per cent concentration was recorded at 30th day after inoculation. The maximum suppression of C.fimbriata was found at 10 per cent concentration on 30th day after inoculation. Concentrations of filtrate used in the range from 0.15 to 10 per cent significantly reduced the growth of C. fimbriata in comparison to control. The suppressive potential of the sterilized culture filtrate of TH-12 bio-control agent indicated the possibility of development of bio-formulation for the management of mango wilt under field conditions.
Key words: Mango, wilt,Ceratocystis fimbriata, Trichoderma harzianum, management
P.K. Shukla, Tahseen Fatima and Gundappa
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow – 226101 (U.P.), India
Biodynamic farming refers to working with energies which create and maintain life. Basically there are two types of biodynamic preparations: biodynamic field spray (BD 500 – BD 501) and biodynamic compost preparations(BD 502 – BD 507). The BD sets are used in cow pat pit, BD compost, biodynamic liquid manure and biodynamic liquid pesticides. Enormous literature and supportive material justify the use of these farming systems to combat soil pollution created by use of various chemicals. However, when it comes to scientific explanation, the work is scanty.The present work reports the enzymatic and siderophore production potential of fungal isolates of these biodynamic preparations. Out of 25 fungal isolates from biodynamic preparations, high pectinase activity was exhibited byisolate no. BD 0-7 (0.939μ mole ml-1 min-1) followed by BD 0-2 (0.894 μ mole ml-1 min-1) and BD 0-8 (0.852 μ mole ml-1 min-1) all these fungus isolates are from BD 500 bio dynamic preparations. High cellulose activity was exhibited by isolate no. BD 6-1 (0.1107 μ mole ml-1 min-1) followed by BD 0-5 (0.1053 μ mole ml-1 min-1) and BD 5-4 (0.1044 μ moleml-1 min-1) from BD 506, BD 500 and BD 504 bio dynamic preparations, respectively. High amylase activity was exhibited by isolate no. BD 3-4 (0.1284 μ mole ml-1 min-1) followed by BD 3-3 (0.1092 μ mole ml-1 min-1) and BD 4-1(0.1053 μ mole ml-1 min-1) from BD 503 and BD 504, respectively. High siderophore production efficiency (%) were exhibited by isolate no. BD 4-5 (285.71%) followed by BD 0-2 (200.00%) and BD 6-1 (190.0%) from BD 504, BD 500and BD 506. High enzyme activity shown by various isolateds from different BD preparations explains the degradative powers associated with these preparations. The siderophore production indicates the iron chelating activity which is an indication of plant growth promoting power.
Key words: Bio dynamic preparations, enzymatic activity, siderophore production
Supriya Vaish, Neelima Garg and Iffat Zareen Ahmad
1ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226101 (U.P.), India
1Department of Bioengineering, Integral University, Lucknow, (U.P.), India*
Nutrition, as one of the key factors that help an individual to attain one’s full potential as an adult, depends to a great extent on the quantity and quality of food. The investigation, to assess the food behavior and diet quality of women police personnels working in technical cadres of police department of Hubbali-Dharwad, was carried out during 2013-2014. The nutrient adequacy of women police varied for energy (81 to 157%), protein (55.66-96.54%), fat(109.85-379.60%), thiamine (96.00 to 211.00%) and magnesium (31.20-298.49%). The rest of the nutrient contents were lower than the RDA. More than 50 per cent of police women consumed fair quality diets (54.45%) followed by good (22.22%) and poor (18.89%) qualities. Only 4.44 per cent women police consumed very good quality diet.
Key words: Nutrition behavior, diet quality, RDA, nutrient adequacy.
Pakeeramma P. Muragod and Chimmad V.B.
Department of Food Processingand Nutrition, Akkamahadevi Mahila, Vishwavidyalaya, Vijayapur-586108 (Karnataka) India
It is an universally accepted fact that chemical fertilizers are the cause of increase in pests and diseases and use of pesticides is more harmful to human and animals. A solution is found with homeopathy, a dynamic force in the invisible plane, for superior one, than the gross physiological watter (chemicals) but without bad effects of chemicals.New agriculture makes use of many different forces-solar, planetary and terrestrial, in order to return to the soil, what is taken from it by growth and harvest of different products.
Key words: Homeopathy, chemicals, solar, planetary, terrestrial
Master Homoeo Agricultural Research Station, Srikakulam – 532005 (A.P.), India
In recent years, colored cotton is receiving increasing importance in view of their eco-friendly character. The urge for eco-friendly cotton can only be fulfilled preferably by organically grown colored cotton, dispensing harmful chemicals in dying and processing. Colored cotton is not a product of any recent genetic engineering or biotechnology.Several lint colors (brown, black, mahogany red, red, khaki, pink, blue, green, dirty white of course and white) are found in the four species of the genus Gossypium.
Key words: Colored cotton
Pooja Bhatt and Anita Rani
G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar (U.K.), India