A field experiment was conducted to study the performance of Mesta genotypes under rainfed conditions for three rainy seasons. The experiment comprised of 11 genotypes, of which nine genotypes (HS-4288, HS-7910, AS-73- CP-560, AMV-1, AMV-2, AMV-3, AMV-4, HS-1 and HS-2) belonged to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and two genotypes (HC- 583 and AMC-108) belonged to H. cannabinus L. The results indicated that among the genotypes AS-73-CP-560 recorded significantly higher fibre yield over the rest of the genotypes except HS-2 and HS-4288 which were at par. HS-2 and AS-73-CP-560 were significantly superior in seed yield over the rest of the genotypes except, HC-583, HS- 4288 and AMV-4 which were at par. Whereas, AMV-1, AMV-2 and AMC-108 recorded significantly lower seed yield. A significantly higher fibre equivalent yield was recorded by AS-73-CP-560 and HS-2 over the rest of the genotypes. At harvest genotypes, AS-73-CP-560 and HS-2 were found superior and recorded significantly higher plant height over other genotypes except for AMV-3, AMV-4, HS-1, HS-4288 and HS-7910 which were at par. HS-2 and AS-73- CP-560 were significantly superior in fresh weight of stem over the rest of the treatments, except AMV-4 and HS-4288 which were at par. The total dry weight of stem was significantly higher with AS-73-CP-560 over the rest of the genotypes except HS-2, HS-4288, AMV-4, AMV-2, AMV-3 and HS-1 which were at par. The varieties belonging to H. cannabinus i.e., HC 583 and AMC-108 were found suitable for the vegetable type and showed earliness as compared to the rest of the genotypes belonging to H. sabdariffa.
Keywords: Fibre quality, Fibre yield, Growth, Mesta genotypes
The field experiment was undertaken to study the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) and cycocel (CCC) on yield attributing characters of okra (Var. Parbhani Kranti) at Mango Research Sub-Centre, Rameshwar, Deogad, Dist. Sindhudurg (Maharashtra) during the kharif season of the year 2016. The experiment was laid in randomized block design with three replications and seven treatments viz; T1 : Control, T2 : CCC @ 250 ppm, T3 : CCC @ 500 ppm, T4 : CCC @ 750 ppm, T5 : PBZ @ 100 ppm, T6 : PBZ @ 200 ppm, T7 : PBZ @ 300 ppm. The sprays of CCC and PBZ at respective concentration were given on the plants at 30 days after sowing and second spray was given at 15 days after first foliar spray. The early flowering initiation (43.3 days after sowing) and 50 % flowering (47.3 days after sowing) were observed in the treatment CCC @ 750 ppm (T4). The maximum number of picking (harvestings) was also observed in CCC @ 750 ppm (T4) treatment (17.33) and it was at par with rest of the growth retardant treatments. The highest length of fruit (11.70 cm), breadth of fruit (16.47 mm) and average fruit weight (13.85 g) were recorded in CCC @ 500 ppm (T3) treatment. The lowest length of fruit (8.70cm) was in PBZ (@ 300 ppm (T7). The lowest fruit breadth (14.97 mm) and fruit weight (13.07 g) was in control (T1). The highest number of fruit per plant (19.07) and highest yield per plot (9.59 kg) were in T4 i.e. CCC @ 500 ppm. Amongst all the treatment, CCC @ 500 ppm was found most appropriate, as it has significantly improved the fruit size and yield of okra during kharif season under Konkan agro-climatic region.
Keywords: Okra, Cycocel, Paclobutrazol, Flowering, Fruit, Yield
K.V. Malshe, P.C. Haldavanekar and R.G. Khandekar
Mango Research Sub-Centre, Rameshwar, Deogad, Dist. Sindhudurg 416806, India
Biochar is a carbon rich product being used in production of many horticultural crops; the production of quality planting material is the key to enhance the yield and quality of the crops. The study on use of biochar for the production of quality seedlings of jamun was undertaken with view of minimizing the cost of production of seedlings in eight treatments with three replications. The application of soil, sand and organic biochar in the ratio of 2:1:1 to a rooting media was found to enhance the germination percentage (100 %), rate of germination (2.23) and seedling vigour (3100). The growth attributes such as seedling height (54.83 cm), girth (5.33 mm), number of leaves (35.89), leaf area (83.40 cm2) at 210 days after germination was found to be maximum in T2. The benefit cost ratio (2.04:1) was observed maximum in same potting mixture.
Keywords: Biochar, Germination attributes, FYM, Growth attributes, CHB
Jasmitha B.G.1, Honnabyraiah M.K.2 and Anil Kumar S.3
1Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, GKVK campus, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2Professor and Head, Department of Fruit science, College of Horticulture, Mysuru, India
3Assistant Professor of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, College of Horticulture, Kolar, India
A field trial to study the effect of mulching and pinching on flowering of marigold var. Pusa Basanti Gainda was conducted during Rabi season of the year 2017-18. The trial was conducted in split plot design comprising two levels of mulching (No mulching and mulching with black polythene as main factor and second factor as different levels of pinching (Control-no pinching, pinching after 3 weeks of transplanting, pinching after 5 weeks of transplanting and double pinching-pinching after 3 and 5 weeks of transplanting). The least number of days for initiation of flowering and 50% of flowering, at 47.06 and 55.75 DAT days after transplanting, respectively, were recorded in black polythene mulching practice. In interaction between mulching and pinching, significantly longest flowering span (31.50 days), highest numbers of flowers (41.38 plant-1) and highest flower yield (217.75 g plant-1 and 10.735 t ha-1) were recorded in the mulching with double pinching (M2P4).
Keywords: Marigold, Mulching, Pinching, Yield
K.V. Malshe1, B.R. Salvi2 and V.V. Sagvekar3
College of Horticulture, Dapoli, Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli,
Dist. Ratnagiri 415712 (Maharashtra), India
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
A field experiment was conducted during Rabi 2019 in randomized block design (RBD) at Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura-Jaipur taking pea as test crop to know the residual effect of imidacloprid 17.8 SL. Two treatments (including a control) with three replications each of 60.0 m2 were taken for the study. Two sprays of pesticide were applied. First spray at pod setting stage and subsequent second spray at 10 days interval. The analysis of insecticide residues was performed with high performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a diode array detector. The initial deposit of Imidacloprid (17.8 SL) in pea pods was 1.122 mg kg-1. The pesticide persisted upto 5th day after treatment (DAT) and reached below detectable level (BDL) on 7th DAT in Pea pod. In case of soil samples, the residues on 15th day was below detectable level (BDL). No any pesticide residue was detected in control samples of Pea pod and soil.
Keywords: Pesticides, Residue, HPLC, Pea and Soil
B.L. Jakhar1, A.R.K. Pathan1, S.R. Dhaka2, R.G. Dudwal1, A.K. Yadav1, S.K. Choudhary1, M.L. Jakhar3 and Renu Choudhary1
1Division of Entomology, RARI, Durgapura, SKNAU, Jobner, Rajasthan, India
2College of Agriculture, Fatehpur, SKNAU, Jobner, Rajasthan, India
3Directorate of Research, SKNAU, Jobner, Rajasthan, India
Investigations to optimize size of cuttings and best month for propagation of Indian plumeria was conducted at College of Horticulture, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri during the year 2019-2020. The experiment was laid in factorial randomized block design with five replications. It consisted of two factors viz. size of cutting and month of planting. All the parameters recorded were significantly influenced by size of cutting and month of planting. The present studies revealed maximum sprouting percentage, survival percentage, plant height, number of leaves, average leaf area, girth at collar as well as absolute growth rate and relative growth rate in T3M1 i.e., 40 cm cuttings planted on 15th of February.
Keywords: Plumeria, Frangipani, Cuttings, Sprouting, Survival
Agroforestry refers to sustainable land use system that combines arable crops with tree crops and /or livestock on the same land management unit, either spatially or temporally and is developing as a major land use activity in the country after agriculture and forestry. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalent agroforestry systems of district Anantnag. Six agroforestry systems were found prevalent in the district by stratified random sampling procedure viz; Horti-agriculture, Boundary plantation, Home gardens, Horti-silvi-pasture, Horti-pastoral and Horti-silvi-agriculture system. The district was dominated by 59.8% (115) marginal followed by 28.64% (55) small, 8.85% (17) medium and 2.60% (5) large farmers. About 91.25 % farmers practicing agroforestry systems belong to marginal and small category and rest 8.75% fall in medium and large farmer category. Main preference was given to apple trees in case of horticultural trees and Poplar and Salix in case of forest trees. The pattern of cropping was paddy, maize, vegetables, and pulses in kharif season and mustard, oats and vegetables in rabi season.
Keywords: Arable, Homegardens, Boundary plantations, Kharif, Rabi, Horti-agriculture, Horti-silvi-pasture
Ishrat Saleem, J.A. Mugloo, K.N. Qaisar, P.A. Khan, G.M. Bhat, Merajudin Dar and Afshan Anjum Baba
Faculty of Forestry, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir,
Benhama, Ganderbal, 191201, J&K, India
A field trial was conducted at Hamelmalo Agricultural College, State of Eritrea to study the occurrence and management of aphid (Aphis gossypii) on okra. The effect of dimethoate, neem cake, and garlic oil extract were tested with the objective to compare efficiency of the treatments in controlling the population of aphids. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Block Design with four replications. The sprays were done in ten days interval whereas counting of nymph and adult population on leaves and flower was done three times before and after each spray. The results showed that the population of aphids was highly controlled from the beginning of the first spray of dimethoate while the botanical pesticides showed effective control starting from the second spray. As regard the effect of the treatment on average yield (kg ha-1) of okra, dimethoate gave increased yield by 4.05 per cent. Higher pod number per plot was recorded in the dimethoate treated plots compared to both neem and garlic extracts. However, statistically both dimethoate and neem were on par with respect to yield. Overall, neem was found to be the most profitable.
Keywords: Okra, Aphid, Dimethoate, Neem cake and Garlic
Tufail Ahmad, Haiget Tesfabrhan Gebrezghi, Teklemariam and Yokabead Tewelde
Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Keren, Eritrea
*Author for correspondence, ITM University Gwalior, India
Impact of staggering in dates of transplanting on the incidence of yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas Walker) in aromatic rice
A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different dates of transplanting on the incidence of yellow stem borer on aromatic rice variety Birsa Vikash Sugandh-1. Pooled mean of two-year data indicated that early planted crop had least incidence of dead heart and white ear head (2.30 & 1.86 %) followed by normal planted crop (5.14 & 6.38 %) and late planted crop (10.83 & 13.61 %). Incidence of dead heart and white ear head had bearing in terms of grain yield, which was maximum in early (43.89 q ha-1) followed by normal (38.44 q ha-1) and late (34.00 q ha-1) transplanted rice.
Keywords: Yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas, Dead heart, White ear head, Aromatic rice
Sudeepa Kumari Jha and Rabindra Prasad
Department of Entomology, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi-834006, India
Field evaluation of summer spray oils against European Red mite and San Jose scale on apple
European red mite (ERM), Panonychus ulmi (Koch) and San Jose scale (SJS), Quadraspidiotus perniciosus are major insect pests of apple in Kashmir Valley, India. Field evaluation of summer spray oils (Code-461 and MAK All Season) at different concentrations were conducted at two locations i.e. Lisser Anantnag and Asham Bandipora during 2019. All the treatments were significantly superior in terms of per cent mortality of ERM and SJS as compared to untreated control. The cumulative mean mortality of ERM and SJS at recommended dose of 750 ml/100 litres of water both for Code-461 and Standard check (MAK All Season) were significantly at par with each other. No phytotoxicity symptoms viz., leaf injury, yellowing, wilting, necrosis, hyponasty and epinasty were recorded in case of Code-461 at 750 and 1500 ml/100 litres of water.
Keywords: Code-461, HMO, Apple, San Jose scale, European red mite
Parveena Bano, Sajad A. Ganie, Rizwana Khurshid, M.A. Paray and Zul-Nuran Haifa
Division of Entomology, SKUAST-K, Shalimar Srinagar – 190 025, India
Impact of degree-day summation on infestation of gall insect, Pauropsylla beesoni Laing on soalu, Litsea monopetala Roxb., the primary host plant of muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Westwood
To study the seasonal variation and growing degree day, data on gall insect, Pauropsylla beesoni Laing population were collected from infested soalu plant grown in experimental field of CMER&TI, Lahdoigarh during 2016-18. The population dynamics of gall insect was calculated by taking year-round population variation from March 2017 to February 2018 while the growing degree day (GDD) was calculated from 1st March to 31st July in both the seasons of the same corresponding years. The linear regression analysis between different weather parameters and gall insect population were found to be positively significant in case of maximum temperature (75.83%), minimum temperature (68.44%), minimum relative humidity (68.07%) and total rainfall (82.12%). Further linear regression analysis between GDD and gall insect population during the single life cycle showed an impact of 76 per cent, inferring an effective role of GDD on P. beesoni population.
Keywords: Soalu, Pauropsylla beesoni, Growing degree days, Population dynamics
Bhupen Kumar Sahu1, Ipsita Samal2 and Debashree Sarkar3
1Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat – 785 013, Assam, India
2ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi – 110 012, India
3Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar – 751 003, Odisha, India
Seasonal incidence of Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover and Predatory fauna in Chilli ecosystem
Study on seasonal incidence of Aphis gossypii infecting chilli was carried out at College Farm, UAS Dharwad, during rabi 2018-19. The crop was grown in a plot size 20×20 m with spacing of 60×60 cm. The aphid population was recorded on chilli from 6th Week After Transplanting (WAT) (2.37 aphids leaf-1) and reached to a peak level of 32.20 aphids leaf-1 during 10th WAT. Later it followed decreasing trend and attained least incidence of 6.50 aphids leaf-1 at 14th WAT. Among the two natural enemies investigated, ladybird beetle showed significant positive correlation (r=0.560) with aphid incidence whereas, non-significant positive association noticed with green lacewing population (r= 0.429).
Keywords: Aphis gossypii, Chilli, Natural enemies, Ladybird beetle, Green lacewing
Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences,
Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India
Seasonal Incidence of fruit flies, Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchard in relation to abiotic factors in Saharanpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India
A study on seasonal incidence of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera spp, Hendle (Diptera6″ Tephritidae) in Saharanpur region of Uttar Pradesh, India was conducted by bottle trap and wooden block trap in 2004 and 2005 and factors including temperatureÏ rainfall and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically. The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Saharanpur region of Uttar Pradesh. In bottle traps, catches started from 4th standard week in 2004 (5.6 flies trap-1 week-1) and in 9th standard week in 2005 (1.75 flies trap-1 week-1). Trap catches in wooden block trap started from 3rd standard week in 2004 (3.67 flies trap-1 week-1) and from 4th standard week 2005 (2.0 flies trap-1 week-1). The peak average population was 362.0 and 1042.0 flies trap-1 week-1 in 29th standard week in bottle trap and wooden block trap, respectively in the year 2004. The peak average population was attained in 28th standard week during 2005. It was observed that trap catches were higher in wooden block traps as compared to bottle traps in both the years of study. The fruit fly trap catch during 2004 and 2005 was found to be dependent upon abiotic factors. Significant positive correlations were recorded between average temperature and rainfall with the population of fruit flies during both the years of study. Analyses of relationship between average relative humidity and population of fruit flies revealed the presence of statistically insignificant negative correlations. Considering the correlation of abiotic factors with seasonal incidence in view, the present study holds promise for advance planning of management programme against fruit flies of mango.
Keywords: Bactrocera spp., Seasonal incidence, Mango, Fruitfly
ICAR-Central Institute of Sub-tropical Horticulture, Lucknow-226 002 U.P., India
The recent invasion of fall armyworm has created havoc in India. The pest has a wide range of hosts and poses a serious threat to a tropical country like India with diversified agriculture. The survey revealed a significant damage of fall armyworm was recorded on maize (6.00 to 100.00%). Apart from maize, the incidence of fall armyworm has been first time observed on 9 other crops. The absence of egg-laying on these crops indicated a possibility of migration from its preferred hosts viz., maize and sorghum. The percent incidence varied from 6.00 to 100.00, 2.22 to 40.43 per cent, 25.73-42.58 per cent and 30.31 to 38.44 per cent on maize, sorghum, hybrid sorghum and fodder sorghum varieties respectively. However, the infestation on other 07 unconventional crops was recorded from 0.12 to 10.21 per cent, while rest other 33 crops were completely free from infestation.
Keywords: Cotton, Fall armyworm, Maize, Sorghum, Sugarcane
C.P. Mallapur, Anjan Kumar Naik, Sireesh Hagari and R.K. Patil
Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture,
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
The biological attributes of Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Eulophidae: Hymenoptera) were studied on different nutrients regimes at 26 ± 20C and 65 ± 5% relative humidity in the laboratory on pupa of pink borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The development period varied from 18.00 to 20.0 days in different nutrient regimes and it was at par with each other. The number of progeny emerged from each pink borer pupa was more in honey-water and crushed pink borer solutions as compared to sugar solution and starved conditions. Female progeny was significantly more well fed (91.70 to 92.88%) than under starved condition (89.43%).The sex-ratio (Male: Female) in three nutrition regimes varied from 1:11.18 to 1:13.55. It is concluded that the honey water and pink borer solution could be the optimal food source in providing an adequate amount of nutrition required by T. howardi in its reproduction activity.
Keywords: Sesamia inferens, Pupal parasitoid, Biology, Adult feeding, Sugarcane
Anuj Kumar, Arun Baitha, A.K. Jaiswal, S.N. Sushil and A. Kumar
Division of Crop Protection
ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226 002, U.P., India
A field experiment was conducted to screen out sixteen rice varieties against rice leaf folder at research farm of Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi during Kharif season of 2019 and 2020.Out of sixteen varieties screened, Suraksha, C. R. Dhan 304, C.R. Dhan 201 and PAC-801 emerged as resistant and promising against the leaf folder, receiving leaf damage due to leaf folder (LDLF) incidence below 10 percent even when they were grown in unprotected conditions as against the significantly and substantially higher pest incidence (i.e. LDLF %) recorded in case of TN- 1 and Lalat receiving 33.38 (32.45 & 34.32 per cent LDLF) and 23.60 (22.25 & 24.95 per cent LDLF) during both years, respectively. Abhisek, C.R. Dhan 201, C.R. Dhan 304, PAC-801 and Suraksha were found resistant against the leaf folder incidence receiving incidence below 10 per cent. The genotypes IR-64 (Drt-1), BVD-203, Akshay Dhan, C.R. Dhan 303, Naveen, Vita-12, US- 362 and US-380 were moderately resistant.
Keywords: Rice, Cnaphalocrosis medinalis, Varieties, Leaf folder, Resistance
Grain discoloration complex disease of rice is an emerging threat to rice crop all over the world and it acquires particular importance as it results in qualitative loss of harvested crop. So the present study was carried out to know the epidemiology of grain discolouration disease. Disease development in relation to weather parameters were studied like maximum and minimum temperature, morning and evening relative humidity, rainy day and rainfall with the development of the grain discolouration in paddy. The severity recorded at different stages of crop growth was correlated with weather parameters during the respective stage. The severity of paddy grain discolouration during kharif 2017 correlated positively with maximum temperature (r=0.73) and minimum relative humidity (r=0.29).
Keywords: Paddy, Weather factors, Severity, Discolouration, Epidemiology
K.B. Yadahalli and Jyoti A. Konnur
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Hanumanamatti-581115,
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580005, Karnataka, India
Mushroom is multicellular, heterotrophic and achlorophyllous species that belongs to Basidiomycetes family and mycota kingdom. The present review paper discusses about bioremediation of heavy metals and biodegradation with mushroom diversity. The edible mushroom Lactarus deliciosus, Russula delica, Hizopogon roseolus are known to dissociate Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Agaricus bisporus assimilates heavy metals like Cr, Cu, Cd and Zn whereas, Pulveroboletus amarellus absorbs Zn metal. Agaricus macrospores accumulate Cd metal. Pleurotus ostreatus absorbs more heavy metals like Cd, Hg, Zn and Cu. Volvariella volvaceace accumulates more Cu and Zn metal. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor can degrade wide variety of dyes like Azo dyes, heterocyclic dyes and other polymeric dyes. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor can degrade wide variety of dyes like Azo dyes, heterocyclic dyes and other polymeric dyes. Ganoderma lucidum extracted from hardwood stump is reported to degrade polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s) of penanthrene and pyrene. Phanerochaete chrysosporium degrades organic molecules polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s), polychlorinated biphenyls dioxins, chlorophenols, chlorolignins, nitro cranditics and different pesticides like lindane, Atrazine, BTEX. Pleurotus florida, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleorotus sajarcaju. The Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus sajorcaju are effective for degradation of bromophenol blue, brilliant green and methylated dye. Pleurotus pulmonaris BPSM 10 strain which degrades azo and triphenyl methane dyes like Napthol Blue Black, Orange G, Malachite green, Victoria Blue B, Phenol red, Congo red and comassive brilliant blue. The technology improves industrial degradation & remediation efficiency, prevents natural pollution and maintains ecosystems.
Keywords: Mushroom, Bioremediation, Biodegradation, Heavy metals, Dyes
Avinash Sharma1*, Megha Raghavan2, Zhang Shi3 and Nguyen Tran Hai Bang4
1School of Agricultural Sciences, RNB Global University, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India
2Department of Fruit Science, CHF, Central Agricultural University, Pasighat, Arunanchal Pradesh, India
3Sheng Yang Agriculture University & China University of Political Science and Law, China
4Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Can Tho, Vietnam
Phytophthora nicotianae causing a polycyclic soil borne disease infects a wide range of host plants belonging to different families all over the world. The foot and root rot disease of crossandra is a major setback for its cultivation in the country, wherever the crop is grown, causes huge loss to flower industry. Due to soil borne nature of the disease, management is a challenging process. Therefore, the bio-efficacy of the fungicides and bio-agents against Phytophthora nicotianae causing the root rot disease of crossandra was studeed. Ten different novel fungicides and bio-agents were screened against root rot disease under in-vitro condition. Of these, most of the systemic fungicides were found to completely inhibit radial growth of the fungal mycelium, whereas in case of bioagents, Trichoderma harzianum (84.19%) and Streptomyces viridobrunneus (81.44) was found to be most effective in reducing the mycelial growth inhibition of Phytophthora nicotianae.
Keywords: Crossandra, Bio-agents, Phytophthora nicotianae, Fungicides
Priti Sonavane and S. Sriram
Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta lake P.O., Bengaluru-560089, India
Thiophanate methyl (TM), chlorantraniliprole (CAP) and chlorpyriphos (CP), off applied as sett and/or soil treatment, are the three most explored and recommended pesticides used in sugarcane cultivation for insect pest and disease management. Despite the widespread use of these pesticides, there have been very limited studies on the toxicological effects of these pesticides on soilassociated microbes, especially under the sugarcane agroecosystem. As such a 30 day microcosm experiment was conducted to study the impact of these pesticides on population of major soil microbial groups (bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) and the beneficial fungus Trichoderma, when applied as sett and soil treatment in sugarcane. The impact of these pesticides on microbial population dynamics was assessed at intervals of 72 h and 30 days post application following serial dilution method and using suitable culture medium. The results clearly revealed that all three pesticides exerted a significant impact on soil microbial population dynamics for a period of at least 30 days post application. All three pesticides significantly reduced bacterial, fungal and Trichoderma populations; however, TM and CAP application was observed to result in a significant stimulation of the actinomycetes population. Among the three pesticides, CAP was observed to most significantly impact the bacterial and fungal populations which showed drastic reduction even at 30 days post application. Overall, the results of our study clearly established that soil application of these pesticides, especially CAP, have a significant negative impact on soil microbial dynamics, at least over a short term period. As such further detailed investigations on the impact of these pesticides on soil microbial population dynamics as well as functional microbial groups over longer time duration are essential to ascertain the environmental safety of their repeated long term use.
Keywords: Pesticides, Soil Microbial Dynamics, Sugarcane, Chlorantraniliprole, Chlorpyriphos, Thiophanate methyl
Deeksha Joshi1, Santosh Kumar2 and Manoj Kumar2
1Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow, India
2Department of Plant Protection Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, India
Field experiment was carried out at Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye (DBSKKV, Dapoli), Maharashtra (India) during 2013-2018 to study the assessment of economic potentiality and employment generation through integrated nutrient management (INM) in coconut-based cropping system. INM practices viz., T1-75 % of RDF+25 % of N through organic recycling with vermicompost, T2-50 % of RDF+50 % of N through organic recycling with vermicompost + vermiwash application + bio-fertilizer application + in situ green mannuring (cowpea), T3-fully organic:100 % N through organic recycling with vermicompost + vermiwash application + bio-fertilizer application + in situ green mannuring (cowpea) and green leaf mannuring + composted coir pith, husk incorporation and mulching with coconut leaves were imposed in coconut based cropping system involving nutmeg, cinnamon, banana and pineapple. For comparison, T4– control: monocrop of coconut with recommended NPK and organic manure was maintained. Four treatments were laid out in a block of 0.45 ha area each. Among the different INM practices, treatment T1 recorded highest net returns Rs.131605/- with highest B:C ratio 2.69 followed by T2 recorded Rs.122868/
– and 2.29 as net returns and B:C ratio respectively. In contrast, the treatment T4 – coconut monocrop alone had recorded Rs.38735 and 1.60 as net returns and B:C ratio respectively. Employment generation due to cropping system was one of the objectives under the study and it was observed to be very high in the treatment T1 (297 man days ha-1 year-1) followed by the treatment T2 (284 man days ha-1 year-1), whereas, it was the lowest in coconut monocrop (T4). Productivity of the system was higher in the intercropping garden. The coconut nut yield (5-year average) was higher under T1 (147.2 nuts palm-1 year-1), followed by T2 (138.4 nuts palm-1 year-1) and T3 (123.6 nuts palm-1 year-1), whereas, monocrop had recorded a significantly lower number of nut yield (97.2 nuts palm-1 year-1). INM practice involving T1-75 % of RDF+25 % of N through organic recycling with vermicompost is most sustainable, productive and economically viable treatment with highest employment generation compared to other treatments.
Keywords: Coconut, INM, Nutrient status, Nut yield, Employment generation
V.V. Shinde, S.L. Ghavale, S.M. Wankhede, H.P. Maheswarappa and P.M. Haldankar
ICAR-AICRP on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri – 415 612, Maharashtra, India Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India
The consistency determination is the critical process in jaggery production which defines the final product quality. The equipment was developed with resistance temperature detectors (RTD), red blue green (RGB) sensor, electrical conductivity sensor and aurdino to conclude the consistency of jaggery preparation so that the final product will be of less deterioration and loss. Three suitable physical parameters were picked by conducting the literature study and their corresponding sensors were chosen for developing the equipment. The developed equipment was tested in field over the jaggery prepared from sugarcane varieties, VcF 0517 and Co 8371. The colour, temperature and electrical conductivity values of finest jaggery produced by manual method were statistically analysed and fed to the equipment as a set point to conclude the consistency of jaggery. Jaggery produced from VcF 0517 and Co 8371 varieties by using the developed equipment was better in quality with good recovery percentage of 99.10 ± 0.12 per cent and 99.16 ± 0.13 per cent respectively as compared to the manual method.
Keywords: Sugarcane, Jaggery, Consistency, RGB sensor, Electrical conductivity, Temperature
B Manikandan1, V Perasiriyan2, B Murugan3 and G Sujatha4
1College of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduveli, Chennai – 600 052, India
2Department of Food Business Management, College of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduveli, Chennai – 600 052, India
3Department of Food Safety and Quality Assurance, College of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduveli, Chennai – 600 052, India
4Department of Food Process Engineering, College of Food and Dairy Technology, Koduveli, Chennai – 600 052, India
A field experiment was conducted at Central Research Station of Agronomy department of the College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, during two consecutive kharif and rabi seasons of 2017-18 and 2018-19. Maize crop was taken as rabi crop after the kharif rice to study the influence of residual nutrient provided to rice and direct effect of different herbicidal treatments on its growth, yield attributes, yield and economics. Performance of maize was studied under split plot design. Among the nutrient management practices, 50 per cent soil test based nitrogen + 50% vermicompost (50% STBN + 50% VC) recorded the highest kernel yield of 6.36 t ha-1 and among the weed management practices, combined application of topramezone @ 25g a.i. + atrazine @ 250g a.i. ha-1 as tank mix at 15 DAS resulted the maximum kernel yield of 7.18 t ha-1. Nutrient and weed management practices were found to have interacting effect on kernel yield as well as on the economics of maize. Treatment combination, comprising 50 per cent STBN + 50 per cent VC in rice with topramezone @ 25g a.i + atrazine @ 250g a.i ha-1 as tank mix application in maize at 15 DAS recorded the highest kernel yield of 7.59t ha-1. Maximum gross return (Rs.103318 ha-1), net return (Rs.54406 ha-1) and BC ratio (2.09) were recorded in treatment comprising 50 per cent STBN + 50 per cent VC, among the nutrient management practices. Among the weed management practices, topramezone @ 25g a.i. + atrazine @ 250g a.i. ha-1 as tank mix recorded the best gross return and net profit of Rs.116378 ha-1 and Rs.66371 ha-1, respectively with a BC ratio of 2.32.
Keywords: STBN- Soil test based nitrogen, VC-vermicompost, Topramezone, Tembotrione, Atrazine
Banashri Lodh, S.N. Jena, R.K. Paikaray, Manoranjan Satapathy, Bishnupriya Patra and Susmita Panda
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha-75100, India
The experiment was conducted during October 2017 and, 2018, flowering induction to flowering period at Mango Research Sub-Centre, Rameshwar, Tal. Deogad, Dist. Sindhudurg (Maharashtra) to study the mango hopper population during the flowering period in mango cv. Alphonso. The post-monsoon vegetative flush was emerged in 43rd SMW and vegetative flush phase was further observed upto 46th SMW. The flowering was initiated in 45th SMW and complex phase (Vegetative flush and flowering) was advanced for next one week. The mean population of mango hopper per panicle was studied weekly during the 15 weeks period and it was in the range 0.5 to 21.0 hoppers per panicle. The maximum incidence of mango hopper (17.17 hoppers per panicle) was recorded in 48th SMW and lowest population (1.75 hoppers per panicle) was in 3rd SMW. The population of the mango hoppers was declined gradually from the 50th SMW. The population of mango hopper was significantly highest (7.61 per panicle) was near creek area(Valley conditions) whereas it was lowest (6.63 per panicle) in upper site.
(Key words : Mango, Alphonso, mango hopper, population, flowering)