The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a notorious pest of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.), over tropical and subtropical countries. The eradication program for this weevil using female sex pheromone (male annihilation) and sterile insect technique (SIT) has been undertaken in Okinawa and Amami islands in Japan. The effect of the timing of irradiation on reproduction of adult male of this weevil applied with 100 Gy of radiation either 3 days before adult emergence or 1, 5, or 9 days after emergence was investigated. The survival rate in the control (no treatment) group was 100 per cent throughout the observation period (day 10 to 20 of adult life), while survival rates of irradiated groups were reduced to approximately 30 per cent by just a few days after the start of the observation period. Irradiated individuals showed reduced mating rates for several days before their death, suggesting that the mating period ended before death. The earlier the stage that was irradiated, the lower the total sperm production was recorded. However, the main factor driving decreased insemination rates in irradiated individuals reduced mating rates due to decreased sexual behavior and earlier death, rather than disruption of spermiogenesis. Since mating ability decreased several days before death, irradiation at an early stage shortened mating periods by shortening lifespan. Therefore, the release of adult males immediately after irradiation would appear to be an effective means of flooding the field with sterile males and thus suppressing populations of this pest.
Key words: Accessory gland, mating, radiation, SIT, spermiogenesis, sweet potato
Satoshi Hiroyoshi1,2,3, Takayuki Mitsunaga4, Tsuguo Kohama1,2 and Gadi V.P. Reddy5
1Okinawa Prefectural Plant Protection Center, 123 Maji, Naha,
Okinawa, 902-0072 Japan.
2Okinawa Prefectural Agricultural Research Center, 820 Makabe, Itoman,
Okinawa, 901-0336 Japan.
3202 Corpo Mankyu, Nodamachi,
Kawagoe, Saitama 350-1115, Japan.
4Central Region Agricultural Research Center, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization,
2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8666, Japan
5Montana State University-Bozeman, Western Triangle Agrcultural Research Center,
9546 Old Shelby Rd., P.O. Box 656, Conrad, MT 59425, USA
Corresponding author; Satoshi Hiroyoshi
Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera spp Hendle (Diptera: Tephritedae) in Lucknow region of Uttar Pradesh, India was conducted by bottle trap and wooden block trap in 2004 and 2005 and factors including temperature, rainfall and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically. The results showed that the fruit fly was present all the year round in Lucknow region of Uttar Pradesh. In Lucknow destrict, the first catch in bottle trap was in the 7th standard week in both year 2004 and 2005 at an average of 10.53 and 9.67 flies/trap/week, respectively. However, trap catch were observed in the wooden block traps in the 3rd standard week in 2004 and 2005 (14.50 and 3.67 flies/trap/week, respectively). The peak average population of Bactrocera spp. was 420 and 1499 flies/trap/week in 25th standard week in bottle and wooden block traps, respectively in the year 2004. The weathe parameters during 25th standard week showed the average maximum and minimum temperatures of 37.7°C and 25°C respectively, maximum and minimum relative humidity was 89°C and 73 per cent respectively and the total rainfall was 19.4 cm during the first year of experiment. The peak average population (399 and 1398 flies/trap/week) during the year 2005 was attained in the 26th standard week in bottle trap and wooden block trap, respectively. In the corresponding 26th standard week of the second year, the maximum and minimum temperature relative humidity and the total rain fall was 42 and 25.7°C, 61 and 41 percent and 51 mm., respectively.
Key words: Bactrocera spp, Population dynamics, Lucknow district of UP
N.C. Mandawi, Sarita Sahu, R.K. Mahobia and S.K. Painkra
Former Research Associate, Department of Crop Protection, CISH, Lucknow.
Former Head Department of Crop Protection, CISH, Lucknow.
The larvae of Hermetia illucens, colloquially known as black soldier fly (BSF) pose an enormous potential for small-scale entrepreneurship, especially for economically backward nations. Engaging these avid eaters in frugal application towards the societal benefit can open a new dimension to explore feasible business opportunities and mitigate unemployment issues. The present study was tried to emphasize the various possible end applications of the BSF larvae in a holistic and wholesome way. The prime advantage of dealing with these larvae incorporates the minimization of the threat associated with the mortality rates, due to the ancillary applications of the dead larvae towards the nutri-culture industry and production of alternative fuel. Furthermore, the nutrient-rich compost formation due to the larval digestion activity on the municipal organic waste (MOW) fraction creates a new entrepreneurial niche for lower and middle-income nations. The research yields synthesis of primarily three major end products in terms of compost, bio-diesel, and fish meal cake. Initially, the larvae were employed for the degradation and stabilization of MOW and the product of stabilization was further analyzed and identified as compost as per the Fertilizer Control Order (FCO) 1985. The departed counts have further compressed by means of compaction machine with capacity 3000 kN and body fluid was segregated. The crude liquid was purified using centrifugation and successively followed by Soxhlet extraction. Ultimately, the separated bottom sludge has been blended with the crushed body skeleton of the larvae and turned into protein-rich fish meal cake. Thus, it’s evident to state that besides substantial societal benefits BSF poses magnificent potential to be explored by the entrepreneurial venture.
Key words: Bio-diesel, black soldier fly, compost, fish meal cake, struvite
Atun Roy Choudhury1 and Neha Singh2
1Scientific Officer, Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd., Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India-500 032
2Assistant Manager, Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd., Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India-500 032
The field experiment conducted at Birsa Agricultural University farm during 2010 and 2011 revealed that silver shoots (SS), caused by Orseolia oryzae (gall midge) was minimum (1.05, 1.26 and 1.21, 1.96%, respectively) in plots treated with neem and karnaje cake @ 2.5 t ha-1 against the highest with plants treated with the sole use of N @ 100 kg ha-1 through urea (20.15 and 24.45%) during 2010 and 2011, respectively. The neem cake application also recorded minimum incidence of Scirpohaga incertulas Wlk. (YSB) (1.92 and 2.65%DH) and was at par with karange cake (2.75 and 3.88% DH) but significantly lower than that of sole use of nitrogen @ 100 kg ha– 1 through urea (28.34 and 31.75% DH) and full dose (100%) of recommended chemical fertilizers N,P,K @ 80:40:40 kg ha-1 (19.89 and 22.63% DH) during 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, full dose of RDF remained significantly superior over sole use of N @ 100 kg ha-1 (in the form of urea) in suppressing the incidence of gall midge and YSB during both the years of experimentation. Full dose of green manure (GM) applied through dhaincha, Sesbania rostrata L. (@ 10 t ha-1) supplemented with 50 per cent RDF (N,P,K @ 40:20:10 kg ha-1) was also found significantly effective than that of RDF (100%) of in reducing the pest incidence. Almost similar trends were found in case of incidence of Nephotettix spp. (GLH), Cnaphalocrosis medinalis Gn. (leaf folder) and rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera Ol. As regards the yield of paddy grains (41.37 and 43.80 q ha– 1) the maximum was recorded with 100 per cent RDF followed by GM @ 10 t ha-1 50 per cent RDF (37.63 and 40.68 q ha-1) during the respective years. Among the organic treatments, cake (NC) application proved little superior (33.00 and 36.88 q ha-1) but almost at par with karanj cake (32.33 and 35.68 q ha-1) in realizing yields of paddy grains during 2010 and 2011, respectively. It was noticed that fertilizer nutrients supplied through organic sources showed remarkable reduction in the prevailing major insect pest’s infestation levels and in turn produced higher yields ie, 25.38 and 28.50 q ha-1 with FYM, 32.33 and 35.68 q ha-1 with KC and 32.00 and 36.88 q ha–
1with neem cake against the significantly lower yields of 20.14 and 24.68 q ha-1 with N through urea @ 100 kg ha-1 and lowest 9.75 and 14.68 q ha-1 from untreated control (No, Po, Ko) during 2010 and 2011, respectively. The findings suggests that balanced dose of N,P,K is effective both in terms of suppression of pest incidence and realization of higher grain yield. Moreover, neem cake and karange cake that contains considerable amount of azadirachtin and karanjin, respectively proved their superiorty and higher effectiveness in pest reduction and yield enhancement in the organic mode of rice production.
Key words: Rice, pests, balanced dose of N,P,K, organic manures, neem and karanj cakes, yield.
Department of Agricultural Entomology, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi – 834 006 (Jharkhand)
Email : email@example.com
The field experiment conducted with seedlings of rice (var. IR-64) transplanted on four different dates at two weeks intervals starting from 1st of July till 14th August during wet season of 2015 and 2016 in 10 replications in RBD revealed that earlier were the date of transplanting, significantly lesser were the intensities of attack of yellow stem borer, rice hispa, leaf folder, case worm and green leaf hopper (GLH) and vice versa during 2015 and 2016. However, in case of ear bug, earlier was the date of planting, higher was the attack of earbug and vice-versa. Early transplanted crop realized higher grain yield compared to those planted latter. The crop transplanted early (1st July), normal date of planting (15th July), delayed planting (30th July) and very delayed planting crop (14th August), yielded 44.46, 39.85, 34.64 and 29.20 q ha-1 during, 2015 and 46.90, 40.90, 35.75 and 30.80 q ha-1 during 2016, respectively.
Key words: Rice, insect pests, dates of planting, shifting, yield
Department of Entomology, Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi-834006 (Jharkhand)
In a fixed plot survey carried out at bimonthly interval from April 2018 to February 2019 at Regional Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri, the incidence and intensity of major pests on coconut was recorded. Two plots were selected for observations, one was well managed (good sanitation, use of fertilizer etc.) and another unmanaged (with poor sanitation and no fertilizers). The infestation of major pest’s in managed plot was minimum for rhinoceros beetle (25.73%), eriophyid mite (41.74%) and mite grade index 0.71. Whereas, maximum infestation of rhinoceros beetle, red palm weevil and eriophyide mite of 30.31, 0.37, 71.70 per cent, respectively and mite grade index (1.57) was recorded in unmanaged plot. The average data of two fixed plots revealed that the incidence of rhinoceros beetle was in the range of 7.64 to 48.00 per cent, the maximum was in and minimum was February 2019. The infestation of red palm weevil and black headed caterpillar were 1.11 and 0.64 per cent in February 2019. The infestation of eriophyid mite was in the range of 41.65 to 64.98 per cent, the maximum noticed in the month of April, 2018 and the least in October, 2018. The mite damage grade index 1.39 (moderate) was recorded in February 19. However, lowest MGI (0.67) was observed in October, 2018.
Key wards: Coconut, rhinoceros beetle, red palm weevil, eriophyid mite, black headed caterpillar
S.M. Wankhede1, V.V. Shinde2 and S.L. Ghavale3
AICRP on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri (M.S.), India
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712
1Jr. Entomologist, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Dist. Ratnagiri.
2Agronomist, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Dist. Ratnagiri.
3Research Officer, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Dist. Ratnagiri.
4Project Coordinator, ICAR-AICRP (Palms), ICAR-CPCRI, Kasaragod, Kerala
5Director of Research, Dr. BSKKV, Dapoli.
Management of bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored cowpea through plant extracts and carbaryl
Cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus is a major pest of stored cowpea in Eritrea. A comparative study on the effectiveness of plant extracts (5 percent of neem and lantana leaf), wood ash and 2 per cent carbaryl as grain protectants against C. maculatus conducted at Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea in three replications revealed that the plant extracts significantly reduced the population of C. maculatus at different days of intervals. At 14 DAT, the mortality by carbaryl was high (8.21%) against wood ash and control with low mortality at 7.67 and 7.34 per cent, respectively. The mean weight loss in control with wood ash, lantana leaf extract, neem leaf extract and carbaryl treatments was 44.9, 41.8, 38.4, 34.2 and 19.5 per cent, respectively. The treated seeds recorded higher germination percentage while the control recorded least (40%). Among the botanical protectants, neem extract was found most effective against the storage pests.
Key words: Cowpea, Callosobruchus maculatus, neem, lantana, ash, carbaryl
Daniel Brhane, Tufail Ahmad, Birkti Mehari, Danait Netsereab, Henok Shimendi and Saron Berihu
Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Keren, Eritrea, Africa
Author for correspondence
Bio-efficacy of novel insecticides and combination formulations on major insect pests of Sugarcane Early shoot borer and Top shoot borer
The field experiment was conducted with a view to study the bio-efficacy of some novel insecticides and combination formulations on major insect pests of sugarcane early shoot borer and top shoot borer at the Agricultural Research Farm of Institute of Agricultural Sciences, BHU, Varanasi. In the present study Chlorantroniliprole 18.5 SC was also found to be effective against C. infuscatellus and significantly superior over other insecticidal treatments. Among the other treatments fipronil 5 SC 75 g a i ha-1 treatments stood second and next best treatment is Fipronil 40 WG + Imidacloprid 40 WG combination treatment stood third followed by Indoxicarb 14.5 SC, Cartap hydrochloride 50 SP, Spinosad 45 SC. The results obtained during the evaluation of test insecticides against Top shoot borer (S. excerptalis) revealed that Chlorantroniliprole 18.5 SC treatment was significantly superior over other insecticidal treatments. The second best chemical was Fipronil 5 SC, which were followed by Fipronil 40 WG + Imidacloprid 40 WG, Indoxicarb 14.5 SC, Cartap hydrochloride 50 SP, Spinosad 45 SC and Chloropyriphos that have nearly same per cent field bio- efficacy. Fipronil in combination with Imidacloprid as it was observed in case S. excerptalis was also proved effective.
Key words: Bio-efficacy, insecticides, C.infuscatellus, S. excerptalis
Shrirang Donawade, R.S. Meena and P.S. Singh
Department of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology,
Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi – 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India
A well protected area (WPA) called ‘sick plot’ designed for the study of pathogens and their activity on crops was established at the farm of Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea with the aims of finding out the soil mycoflora and identify the diseases on various crops grown in the plot. The sick plot, spread in 1032.5 square meter area, having 48 plots each of 3 x 3.5 m with a bio-fencing was planted with some vegetable and field crops for the study of pathogen reactions in the form of symptoms. Dry root rot caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola in Lentils; blights on mustard and cabbage; rusts on chickpea and early blights, fusarial wilts and root-knot nematodal infections on tomato were recorded. This preliminary investigation, Phase-I, was done only to find out the pathogen reactions on the crop plants. It will be continued in various seasons to evaluate colony forming units per gram of soil and to calculate the disease occurrences in Phase-II, and the role of antagosnists and arbuscular micorhhiza on the habitation of variuos field mycoflora in Phase-III.
Key words: Agricultural crops; insect pests; mycoflora; plant diseases; well-protected area.
1Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi and 2Sethumadhava Rao, G.
1Department of Agronomy, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (M.P.), India
1, 2Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College Farm, Eritrea
2Coauthor Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Leaf crinkle disease of blackgram was effectively managed employing combined treatments of heat therapy of seeds, seed treatment with imidacloprid 600 FS, spraying the crop with imidacloprid 17.8 SL and growing borders sorghum along. During Kharif 2011 and 2012, sorghum bordered experiment with treatment of heat therapy of seeds, seed treatment with imidacloprid 600 FS and spray with imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 25 days after sowing (DAS) (T6) recorded the least PDI and aphid population. In without border experiment during Kharif 2011, the least PDI recorded was 18.00 with 44.9 per cent reduction in disease over control and 0.8 aphids three leaves – 1 plant-1 at 60 DAS. The least PDI recorded was 16.67 with 40.00 per cent reduction in disease control and 0.6 aphids three leaves-1 plant-1 at 60 DAS was recorded in blackgram border crop experiment and during Kharif 2012 The least PDI recorded was 20.33 with 42.45 per cent reduction in disease incidence over control and 0.6 aphids three leaves-1 plant-1 at 60 DAS in blackgram without border experiment, while in border crop experiment of blackgram, PDI recorded was 18.33 with 38.21 per cent reduction in disease incidence over control and 0.8 aphids three leaves-1 plant-1.
Key words: Blackgram, leaf crinkle, heat therapy, imidacloprid, border crop
Hemachandra Haller and A.S. Byadagi
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture,
Dharwad University of Agricultural Sciences,
Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India