Growth, Development and reproduction of fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera : Tephritidae) on different Mango cultivars, viz. Dashehari, Langra, Chausa and Amrapali
India is the largest producer and exporter of mangoes. It produces choicest cultivars in different region of the countries. However, its export is hampered by susceptibility to fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, as the importing counties are wary of introduction of Indian strain of B. dorsalis into their counties. Consequently, they have imposed many pre export requirements viz., hot water treatment, vapour heat treatment, irradiation, etc.
The present study attempts to study growth, development and reproductive cycle of fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, Hendel on four mango cultivars, viz. Chausa, Langra, Dashehari and Amrapali. The development of the immature stages of B. dorsalis was found to differ, when they were reared on four mango cultivars. The incubation period of eggs of B. dorsalis was minimum (1.75 ± 0.11 days) on Chausa cultivar and maximum (3.30 ± 0.13 days) on Amrapali cultivar. Duration of first larval instars was fastest (1.85 ± 0.13 days) on Chausa and slowest (3.55 ± 0.16 days) on Amrapali. The developmental of second larval instars of B. dorsalis varied from 2.25 ± 0.11 to 4.00 ± 0.15 days with the minimum period on Chausa and maximum on Amrapali (F= 35.12; P<0.001). The third larval instar developed fastest (4.45 ± 0.69 days) on Chausa and slowest (7.60 ± 0.22 days) on Amrapali (F=17.53; P< 0.001). The total developmental period of immature stages of B. dorsalis was shortest (19.45 ± 0.68 days) when fed on Chausa and longest (30.65 ± 0.33 days) when fed on Amrapali (F=93.57; P<0.001). The fastest development took place on Chausa cultivar and slowest on Amrapali.
The different reproductive parameters of B. dorsalis varied significantly when fed on four different mango cultivars. Fecundity of B. dorsalis on mango cultivar varied from 189.80 ± 1.44 to 561.20 ± 3.21 eggs with the least on Amrapali and highest on Chausa (F= 7288.07; P<0.001). The percent egg viability was least (73.22 ± 1.02 %) when adults were reared on Amrapali cultivar and highest (82.50 ± 0.39%) on Chausa cultivar (F=20.00; P <0.001).
Key words: Fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Mango Cultivars, Chausa, Langra, Dashehari and Amrapali.
Assistant Development Officer – Cooperative, Vikas Bhawan Lucknow
and Former Research Associate, Department of Crop Protection, CISH, Lucknow
Removal of seed leaves in tomato during transplantation to restrict the infestation of serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Burgess
The present study explores the potential of removal of seed leaves (cotyledons) during transplantation in tomato on the incidence of serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza trifolii Burgess. The plants, where the seed leaves were removed consistently, recorded lower infestation of L. trifolii over a period of three weeks (0+0.00, 9.70+2.00, 24.10+2.86 mines per plant, respectively) compared to the plants transplanted along with the seed leaves (4.30+0.83,20.10+2.32, 38.90+5.93 mines/plant, respectively). This study establishes the bencficial role of removal of seed leaves in the management of L. trifolii in tomato.
Key words: Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum, Insect pest management, Cotyledons, Serpentine leaf miner
Ravi Kumara R and P.D. Kamala Jayanthi
Division of Entomology and Nematology, ICAR-Indian
Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesseraghatta Lake, PO 560089, India.
Maize stem borer (Chilo partellus) is a serious threat to cultivation of kharif maize in India. Losses due the pest varied from 24-83 per cent in different agro-climatic zones of the country. Study was undertaken to find out incidence of the pest in relation to date of sowing and stage of crop growth during sowing season of the crop at Dryland Agriculture Research Station, SKUAST, Kashmir. An experiment was laid in randomized Block Design, in which sowing was done at 15 days interval starting from March 1 during 2016 and 2017. The observations on Maize Stem Borer infestation and Dead Hearts were recorded. The study revealed that the borer infestation was considerably high during April 1 and April 16 sown crop. Consequently, the control measures need to be initiated during the period for effective maize stem borer management strategy.
Key words: Maize, Maize stem borer, Chilo partellus, Pest infestation, Dead heart of maize
S.A. Hakeem, Z.A. Dar, M.A. Sofi, R.A. Wani, S. Bashir, S. Nissa, S. Naseer and F. Rasool
Dryland Agriculture Research Station, Srinagar, SKUAST, Kashmir-190 025
Four Management modules for the control of Spodoptera litura and Myzus nicotiana in FCV tobacco under Southern Light Soil condition were evaluated during 2015-16 and 2016-17 crop season. Results obtained during two years were pooled and subjected to RBD analysis. The mean infestations reached its peak during 55 to 65 DAP of the crop in both the seasons. The infestation of caterpillar and aphid was low to medium in both the years. The mean proportion of plants damaged (4.25 to 11.15%) and damage score (2.1 to 2.45) recorded due to caterpillar in IPM module was less when compared to that of control plots (4.75 to 12.45% plants damaged and 2.25 to 2.85 damage score). Similar observation was recorded in case of aphid with the mean proportion of plants damaged (6.20 to 11.25%) and damage score (0.76 to 1.61) in IPM module, while control plots had 5.95 to 13.70% plants damaged and 1.40 to 2.41 damage score. Significant differences in yield parameters were observed among seasons and as well as in treatments. The seasonal variation in yield is due to changing weather conditions in successive years. The IPM module consisting of Jowar as barrier crop, NSKS @ 0.5% spray, Spodeptera NPV 250LE spray, Proclaim @ 5g/10 L water spray, Confidor @ 3ml/ 10 L water spray based on ETL gave highest mean yield of green leaf (11,577.5 kg/ ha), cured
leaf (1,807.1 kg/ ha), bright leaf (1,091.2 kg/ ha) and grade index (1,206.2). The cured leaf yield recorded 25.63 per cent increase over the control. The mean total income from this module was Rs. 2,10,527/- per ha and the Cost: Benefit ratio was 1: 6.58. It also gave 25.63 per cent higher returns over the control module. This IPM module was demonstrated in 1.0 acre area of a nearby farmers’ field during 2017-18 cropping season and the farmer got convinced with the technology with a production of 8.0 Q/acre cured leaf.
Key words: Pest Management modules, Spodoptera litura, Myzus nicotianae, FCV Tobacco, Southern Light Soil condition
K China Chenchaiah
Principal Scientist, ICAR-CTRI Research Station, Kandukur-523 105. A.P.
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Soybean is an important oil seed and pulse crop. Among various disease root rot disease is complex in nature, which causes predominant yield loss. Since disease is soil borne in nature, chemical method of management is expensive, hence, utilization of resistant cultivars in farming is simple, effective and economical in the management of diseases. In present investigation, ten advanced lines, which are resistant to rust disease were screened against root rot complex of soybean in sick soil in pots under glasshouse. The result revealed that, two genotypes viz., DSb 28-3 and DSb 30-2, were showing moderately susceptible reaction. Five of the genotypes depicted susceptible reaction viz., DSb 24, DSb 25, DSb 33, DSb 34 and DSb 21. Three of the genotypes were highly susceptible viz., DSb 23-2, DSb 27 and JS 335 under glasshouse condition.
Key words: Glass house, Soybean, Rust, Resistant genotypes, Root rot complex
Preeti Teli, Shamarao Jahagirdar and Basavaraja G.T.
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Dharwad
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
The experiment was carried out at Horticultural Research Station, O.U.A.T, Bhubaneswar during 2013-14 and 2014-15 with the objectives of finding out the best treatment for management of sigatoka leaf spot disease (Mycosphaerella musicola) of banana. The investigation revealed that among eight treatments tested, T6 (application of 0.05 per cent propiconazole + 1 per cent mineral oil) recorded its superiority in respect of disease control, yield and quality of fruit than rest of the treatments. This treatment also resulted in least disease severity and more disease free leaves (YLS) (1.29 & 7.7 respectively) along with the highest bunch yield (21.00 kg plant-1) and B:C ratio of 2.60. Difenconazole 1 ml l-1 (0.1%)+ petroleum based mineral oil (1%) with the disease severity of 1.89 in 0-6 scale was found to be the second best treatment. Maximum disease severity and lowest bunch weight was observed in control. Hence, the spraying(s) of 0.05 per cent propiconazole + 1 per cent mineral oil is recommended for effective control of sigatoka leaf spot disease of banana.
Key words: Sigatoka leaf spot, Propiconazole, Petrolium based mineral oil, Disease severity, Youngest leaf spot
B.K. Pradhan*1, G. Biswal2 and S. Swain3
1Junior Plant Pathologist. AICRP on Fruits, 2Professor, Dept. of Plant Pathology, 3Scientist in Charge, AICRP on Fruits
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Bhubaneswar – 751 003, Orissa
*Corresponding Auther: B.K. Pradhan, Email: email@example.com
Soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. and Syd. is the potential disease, causing severe losses in yield and also quality of oil in soybean. The continuous use of chemical fungicides in the management of disease leads to the development of resistance in the pathogen and also causes deleterious effect on existing ecosystem. However, the influence of plant nutrition status on susceptibility and tolerance of crops to diseases is an important aspect to be considered. A field experiments was laid out in split plot design with two main treatments and six sub treatments at the AICRP on Soybean, Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Science, Dharwad, Karnataka and Research and Development Unit, Ugar Sugar Works Ltd., Ugarkhurd, (Belagavi district) during kharif season. Results of the integrated disease management with fungicide and nutrients in both the location revealed that two sprays of hexaconazole 0.1% + KNO3 2% recorded minimum disease severity followed by hexaconazole 0.1% + neem oil 1%. Further two sprays of these treatments recorded maximum seed yield, number of pods and 100 seed weight over unsprayed control.
Key words: Hexaconazole, KNO3 , Neem oil, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Soybean rust, Integrated management
H. Sharadha, Shamarao Jahagirdar and Basavaraja G.T
Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Dharwad
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India
Detection of the root-rot pathogens Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani in cluster bean seeds, populanly known as guar seeds (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Linn.) Taub.), was attempted using standard blotter and agar plate methods. Blotter method seemed better, where 30 per cent seeds showed root rot pathogens, of these 17 per cent had colonies of F. solani and 13 per cent had R. solani. In agar plate method, 19 per cent seed showed root rot pathogens, and frequency of F. solani and R. solani was 10 and 9 per cent, respectively. The site of infection of both the pathogens was the seed coat. The sections of infected seeds of guar showed the presence of inter and intra-cellular mycelium of the two pathogens, and sclerotia of R. solani in seed coat and cotyledons.
Key words: Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Cluster bean, Guar, Seed pathology, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani.
Burhanuddin Bohra*, Kusum Mathur1 and P.C. Trivedi2
Research Centre, Godrej Agrovet Limited, Pirojshanagar, Eastern Express Highway, Vikhroli (East), Mumbai-400 079, India.
1Department of Plant Pathology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001, India.
2Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302 004, India.
*Corresponding author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Seven kharif crops, namely, maize, sorghum, cowpea, soybean, green gram, sesame and ridge gourd were evaluated for pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani causing root-rot of guar. Out of these, three, viz. soybean, green gram and sesame developed 36 to 51 per cent root-rot due to these pathogens and were considered susceptible, while others were resistant, and may be used for crop rotation to reduce the soil-borne inoculum of these pathogens.
Key words: Guar, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Linn.) Taub., Root rot, Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Host range, Soybean, Green gram, Sesame, Maize, Sorghum, Ridge gourd
Burhanuddin Bohra, P.C. Trivedi1 and Kusum Mathur2
Research Centre, Godrej Agrovet Limited, Pirojshanagar, Eastern Express Highway,
Vikhroli (East), Mumbai-400 079, India.
1Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302 004, India.
2Department of Plant Pathology, Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur-313 001, India
Trichome is a small hair or other outgrowth from the epidermis of a plant, typically unicellular and glandular. In natural farming, this Trichome hairs are strong enough to defend sap sucking by sucking insects, avoid leaf eating by caterpillar and avoid spore germination of fungus. In chemical farming Trichomes are present on all above ground parts of the plants, but we can’t remove them as they are very smooth. Due to application of urea and other chemical fertilizers, faster vegetative growth makes the natural defending mechanisms of the plants, i.e., Trichomes very smooth, so that they can’t defend against sucking insect, leaf eating caterpillar and could also allow fungal spore to
Key words: Trichome, Natural farming, Chemical farming
S. Majeed Ahmed and * K.S. Bodeeshavali Vali
Assistant Director of Agriculture (R) Kadapa and Farmer, Respectively