A clear scientific understanding of the behavioural/chemical ecology of the interactions with its hosts, conspecificsand natural enemies at different trophic levels is key for the development of reliable and sustainable push-pullstrategies. Insects have mastered the art of using semiochemicals as communication signals and rely on them to findmates, hosts or habitats. The potential semiochemicals could be rapidly screened by Computational Reverse ChemicalEcology (CRCE) approach. The literature on phytosemiochemicals has shown that even common and structurallysimple compounds can act as important chemical signals and exhibit biological activity on many different species.Future applications on semiochemicals depend on the availability of the potential cues that enable efficient manipulationof mate-and host-finding behaviour in horticultural pests.
Key words: Semiochemicals, CRCE, behavioural/chemical ecology
Division of Entomology, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India
Simulation models have been used for several applications in the area of pest management which helped to increase the efficiency of field research greatly. These have become more relevant in emerging research areas such asclimate change impacts on pest dynamics and crop-pest interaction and pest forewarning. The application of geo-spatial techniques holds promise for efficient pest surveillance and risk analysis on wide-area basis. The appropriate pest management decisions require a holistic crop loss assessment and estimation of multi-pest EILs. The natural enemy populations need to be considered in decision making to prevent unwarranted pesticide applications.
Key words: Pest management, simulation models, pest dynamics, multi-pest EILS, decision making.
P.D. Kamala Jayanthi
Division of Entomology and Nematology, ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, P.O. Hesseaghatta Lake, Bangaluru (Karnataka),India
Rhizobacteria have been described as plant growth promoting as they offer their plant hosts an additional fortification against pathogen by expression of multiple activities that directly and indirectly inhibit pathogens. Most microbial diversity of the soil ecosystem is confined to the rhizosphere. These rhizospheric microbes have the potential to stimulate plant growth and manage soil and plant health. Nowadays, management of the rhizosphere bacterial population has advanced toward the concept of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) owing to emergence of fungicide-resistant pathogens and health concerns for the producers and consumers. Using PGPR as bio-fertilizer is an efficient approach to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides for sustainable cultivation. In the present study bacteria isolated from Amritpani and Panchromatic were analyzed for their biochemical characters and molecular confirmation using molecular tool. The substrate utilization pattern showed that the characteristics of the majority of the tested strains share a similar pattern. However, few isolates displayed varied patterns. Identification of the seisolates showed that most of them belong to genus Bacillus and Alcaligenes spp. This was further confirmed with sequencing of the 16s rDNA gene of the bacteria. The present study has resulted in the isolation of PGPRs Bacilluspumilus (CISH-PGPR96), Bacillus subtilis (CISH-PGPR102) and Alcaligenes fatalistic (CISH-PGPR104) isolates that can be utilized for sustainable agriculture production.
Key words: Microbial population, Panchagavya, Amritpani, Bacillus pumilus, Alcaligenes faecalis
Ram Awadh Ram, Israr Ahmad and A. Kumar
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226 101 (U.P.), India1Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (U.P.), India
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
A field experiment was conducted to assess N and NK split application to synchronize nutrient application with crop demand in Bt cotton hybrid (NSPL-99). Eight timings of application and different dose of N and NK were taken as different treatments. Timings were planned to supply the fertilizer at different crop growth stages, i.e., at 10,30, 45, 60 and 75 DAS. Split application of N and NK did not have any significant effect on plant height (cm),monopodia per plant, sympodia per plant, boll per plant, boll weight, and G.O.T. (Ginning percentage). Bolls per plant was affected significantly with the different mode of fertilizers application as well as timing of split application.The seed cotton yield did not deviate significantly due to split-cum-basal fertilizer application; however, timings of split application of fertilizers resulted in significant changes in the productivity parameter. The extra net income fromF2 was only Rs. 2884 ha-1 over F1. Amongst the timing of split application, S4 and S5 having three splits up to 60 DAS proved significantly superior to some of the remaining treatments. Seed cotton yield ranged from 21.15 to 21.19 qha-1 with extra net income from Rs. 6109 to Rs. 6205 ha-1 over S1. Other treatments except S7, showed monetary loss from Rs. 900 to Rs. 2250 ha-1. The treatment interactions were found to be significant GMR, and NMR the characters under study.
Key words: Bt cotton, nitrogen, potassium, split application, water use efficiency and nutrient uptake
M.S. Shah, H.S. Kushwaha and M.L. Kewat* and R.K. Rai
Department of Natural Resource Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwa Vidyalaya, Chitrakoot, Satna (M.P.), India*Department of Agronomy, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (M.P.), India
Bio-enhancers for soil, plant health and insect pest management in organic production of horticultural crops
Use of liquid preparations has been an age old practice in ancient India. As alternative, organic farmers had devised plant growth boosters on their own knowledge based on local experiences and given specific names such as Amritpani, Panchagavya, Bijamrita, Jeevamrita etc. Similarly in bio dynamic farming, few effective preparations such asBD-500, BD-501, Cow Pat Pit, bio dynamic liquid manures/bio-pesticides and in Home Organic Farming: Agnihotraash enriched water and Biosol are effective preparations are being used by number of farmers and organizations in India. It is interesting to note that in all these preparations, the basic ingredients are cow based products and studies done on bio-enhancers indicated that there is immense scope of their promotion in organic production of various crops.
Key words: Bio dynamic, amritpani, jeevamrita, panchagavya, Azospirillum, bio dynamic liquid pesticides
R A Ram1 and R K Pathak2
1Principal Scientist, 2 Former-Director, ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226101 (U.P.),India
Cultivation of high value vegetable crops and their economic feasibility under poly house condition in subtropics
Protected cultivation has gained popularity in India in recent past as it enhances productivity by protecting the plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Farmers from different agro-climatic regions are adopting these technologies for higher production and productivity. Cultivation of vegetables such as capsicum, brinjal and tomato is recommended in net houses and capsicum, colored capsicum, tomato and cucumber (exotic) is recommended in polyhouse/greenhouse structures.
Key words : Protected cultivation, vegetables, green house, polyhouse, net house
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226101 (U.P.), India
Advances in genomics for fruit improvement
The omic tools are being used for chancing the quality and nutritional composition of fruit, besides they alsoplay a significant role in resistance breeding, shelf life enhancement and productivity. The use of genomics, proteomics,transcriptomics and metabolomics provide insights to the molecular mechanisms of flowering, fruit development,ripening, insect resistance, herbicides tolerance, etc. Genomics and ascompanying technologies enable systems biology approach toward deciphering complex interactions between genes, proteins and metabolites for resulting phenotype.
Key words: Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, molecular mechanism, phenotype
Anju Bajpai and M. Muthukumar
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankheda, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226101 (U.P.), India
Assessment of different irrigation levels on quality production of headed back guava cv. Lalit under high density plantation
In guava (Psidium guajava L.) low production of crop due to crowding and encroachment of tree branches leading to inefficient light penetration is a general problem in older orchards. The internal bearing capacity of trees also declines with time due to overshadowing. To overcome this problem heading back of unproductive trees to the extent of 1.5 meter height above the ground level to facilitate the sprouting of new shoots below the cut point and allowing the development of productive canopy is important. In this context a field experiment was conducted during 2014-2018 with the objective of improving yield and quality of headed back (1.5 m height) guava cv. Lalit (fifteen year old)under high density planting (6.0 x 3.0 m), accommodating 555plants per hectare. The experimental plot was irrigated with a drip irrigation system having four irrigation levels with one ring basin irrigation method (control). The black polyethylene mulching (100 μ thickness) was used to cover 40 per cent area of tree canopy. Fertilization with recommended dose of fertilizer was applied at different growth stages. Maximum water saving (47.52%) was recorded at 80 per centpan evaporation through drip irrigation and polyethylene mulching as compared to control.Enhancement in flowering in tune of 60 to 85 per cent and maximum fruit yield (24.0 kg tree-1) at 80 per cent irrigation level with polyethylene mulching and minimum yield (15.1 kg tree-1) in control was recorded. Drip irrigation coupled with polyethylene mulching resulted in better quality of fruits in terms of increased TSS (13.4 °Brix), total sugar (6.65%) and ascorbicacid (181.3 mg 100 g-1) without any significant change in acidity (0.24%) as compared to minimum TSS (11.0 °Brix),total sugar (6.50%) and ascorbic acid (160.6 mg 100 g-1) in control.
Key words: Guava, Lalit, headed plant, irrigation level, flowering and fruiting
Manoj Kumar Soni, A.K. Yadav and V.K. Singh
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow – 226101, (U.P.), India