The great challenge of feeding ever growing human populations today is complicated by concerns about the risks of environmental pollution and human health associated with conventional pesticides. Among the recent technological advancements, nanotechnology shows considerable promise to combat these challenges. Most of the conventional pesticides are lost or decomposed while application itself and only 0.1 per cent finally reaches the target pests. Problems such as harmful solvents, poor dispersion, and drift losses can be very well addressed by nanotechnological interventions. Nanotechnology is defined as the branch of science which deals with the characterization, fabrication and manipulation of materials at nano scale,1-100 nm (Hanford et al., 2014). Revolutionary changes in agriculture have been made with the introduction of nanofertilizers, nanopesticides and nanosensors which improved crop production and resource utilization efficiency, facilitate precise and safer application of pesticides as well as detection of pesticide residue in the produce. Important nanoformulations include nanoparticles, nanoemulsion, nanoencapsulation and nanogel. As far as pest management is concerned, these novel nano agricultural products will provide multiple benefits such as reduced use of chemical pesticides, lower environmental pollution and decreased pesticide residual contamination in food and other commodities.
Key words: Nanotechnology, pest management, nanopesticides, nanoparticles, nanogel, nanopheremone
Ms. Nimisha T. and Dr. Deepthy K.B.
College of Horticulture Vellanikkara, Thrissur, Kerala-680656, Kerala Agricultural University
Email: email@example.com (corresponding author)
Antimicrobial property of bio-enhancers viz. Amritpani, Panchagavya, cow pat pit, Jeevamrita was tested against some selected pathogens in vitro conditions revealed significant reduction in the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and complete growth inhibition of Colletotricum gloeosporioides and Fusarium solani.
Key word: Amritpani, panchagavya, cow pat pit, Aspergillus fumigatus and Colletotricum gloeosporioides
R A Ram, Neelima Garg and Priti
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Lucknow- 226 101
1Principal Scientist (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), Divison of Crop Production
2Principal Scientist and Head, Division of Post Harvest Management (E-mail:email@example.com)
3SRF, ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow-226 101, India
For crop intensification and diversification as a strategy of doubling farmers’ income, a field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2016 and 2018 at Junagadh (Gujarat, India) to evaluate groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) + sweet corn (Zea mays L.var. saccharata Sturt) mix/inter cropping systems on medium black calcareous soil. Groundnut + sweet corn intercropping in row ratio of 1:1 (replacement series), 2:1, 3:1 and paired row in row ratio of 2:1 (additive series) and mix cropping in 90:10 per cent and 80:20 per cent were compared with sole groundnut and sole sweet corn. The pooled results over three years revealed that the paired row (45-75-45 cm) groundnut + sweet corn (2:1) additive intercropping recorded significantly the highest groundnut pod equivalent yield (GPEY)of 2210 kg ha-1 and land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.42. The next superior treatments in this regard were groundnut + sweet corn (3:1) additive intercropping and groundnut (90%) + sweet corn (10%) replacement mix cropping having PEY of 1997 & 1765 kg ha-1 and LER of 1.32 & 1.12, respectively. Whereas, the sole sweet corn recorded the lowest GPEY (1191 kg ha-1) and groundnut + sweet corn (1:1) replacement intercropping registered the lowest LER (0.97). The paired row (45-75-45 cm) groundnut + sweet corn (2:1) additive intercropping recorded maximum net returns of ‘ 72880 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 2.94, closely followed by groundnut + sweet corn (3:1) additive intercropping and groundnut (90%) + sweet corn (10%) replacement mix cropping, which gave net returns of ‘ 63497 and 55279 ha-1 and B:C ratio of 2.75 and 2.68, respectively.
Key words: Crop diversification, intercropping, farmer’s income
V. P. Chovatia, R. K. Mathukia*, S. K. Chhodavadia and B. K. Sagarka
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Junagadh Agricultural University, Junagadh-362001 (Gujarat, India)
Response of drip irrigation on different tree architecture of mango cv. Dashehari for quality production
A field experiment was conducted with an objective of improving the yield and quality of mango cv. Dashehari (15 year old) planted at 6.0 x 9.0 m spacing accommodating 185 plants per hectare. The experimental plot was irrigated with drip irrigation system having four emitters per plant of eight LPH capacity based on irrigation level of 80 per cent pan evaporation (PE) replenishment against ring basin irrigation methods used in control. The black polyethylene mulching (100µ thickness) was used to cover 40 per cent area of tree canopy. Recommended dose of fertilizer was applied at different phenological stages. The impact of different canopy shape viz. conical shape, flat top, open centre on light distribution pattern and gas exchange parameters along with flowering and fruiting pattern was studied. There were significant change in light distribution pattern among different shape being maximum diffused light (7777 mol m-2 s- 1) in open centre and minimum in flat top (4791 mol m -2 s-1). Among gas exchange parameters photosynthesis rate (13.15 ì mol m-2 s-1) was also found maximum in the open centre as compared to other shape (8.4 to 12.7ì mol m- 2 s-1) of canopy. Enhancement in flowering, maximum fruit yield in open centre (63.0 kg tree- 1) followed by flat top (59.6 kg tree-1), conical shape (54.3 kg tree -1) and minimum yield (48.6 kg tree-1) in control was recorded. Maximum ‘A’ grade fruit (27%) was also observed in open centre with application of irrigation at 80 per cent PE per day per plant against minimum ‘A’ grade fruit (11%) recorded in the control.
Key words: Mango, Dashehari, Canopy shape, Irrigation level, Photosynthesis rate
Manoj Kumar Soni1 and V. K. Singh2
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow – 226 101, India
1Research Associate; 2Principal Scientist
Collective framework in saffron marketing and improvement of channels
The present study is a review based paper. It was undertaken to examine the role of organizations and committee in marketing in general and saffron in particular. Furthermore, it highlights the pros and cons of intermediaries in marketing. The study identifies less role of organizations and committee in saffron marketing. Almost all studies confirm the gain of intermediaries at the cost of growers. By eliminating the role of these middlemen, growers can manage to get a good price for their produce. But in a real sense these intermediaries actually indirectly gain at the cost of environment because high gains of intermediaries forced the saffron growers to substitute extensive cultivation for intensive cultivation in an ill-conceived manner and within a decade or so, this golden land lost its fertility. The outcome is that the notion of environmental sustainability has vanished from the minds of saffron growers because unhindered intensive cultivation failed to identify and then create a simulation of the real objects of the problem (either of saffron or of environment-related problems). By minimizing the role of these middlemen, growers can manage to get a good price for their produce and the notion of environmental sustainability can get its lost place back in the eyes of the growers. Review of literature shows that for preventing real problems of saffron market inside out and increasing the share of saffron growers in consumer’s rupee there is a need of in-depth review of the production and marketing of saffron. In order to improve the over-all role of organizations and committee in saffron marketing and reduce the number of intermediaries who dominate saffron marketing thereby taking away major part of consumer’s rupee, the present paper advances recommendations.
Key words: Saffron, marketing, organizations, cooperative marketing, intermediaries.
Binish Qadri1 and Mudaser Ahad Bhat2
1Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
2Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
An experiment was conducted during the kharif seasons of 2010-11 and 2011-12 at Krishi Nagar farm, Department of Agronomy, JNKVV Jabalpur to study the different crop geometries and depths of planting on growth and yield of rice in system of rice intensification. The results revealed that 30 cm × 30 cm planting geometry had superiority in various parameters, viz, growth and yield, and were significantly influenced by plant geometry and depth of planting. Rice variety MR-219 with shallow depth of planting (2.5 cm) was markedly superior in growth parameters, viz., number of tillers/m2 at harvest. Almost all the yield parameters, viz, test weight, harvest index, grain and straw yields, were superior with the MR-219 variety and shallow depth of planting.
Key words: Varieties, yield, test weight, rice
Archana Rajput1, Satyakumari Sharma2 and Sujit Singh Rajput3
1Department of Agronomy, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (M.P.), India
2Department of Agronomy, J.A.U., Junagadh (Gujarat), India
3Department of Food technology, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur (M.P.), India
Effect of pinching on flowering and yield in different varieties of marigold (Tagetes spp)
The field experiment conducted during Rabi season of the year 2017-18, to study the response of marigold varieties (Pusa basanti gainda, pusa arpita and yellow 09) to different levels of pinching (Control-No pinching, pinching after 3 weeks of transplanting, pinching after 5 weeks of transplanting and double pinching – Pinching after 3 and 5 weeks of transplanting), showed that the earliest initiation of flowering (38.00 DAT) and minimum days for 50 per cent flowering (53.00) was recorded in control (no pinching) in Yellow 09. The double pinching in Yellow 09 recorded significantly maximum numbers of pickings (7.15). The longest crop duration (flowering period) and highest yield of 27.54 days and 176.16 q ha-1, respectively in Yellow 09 variety with double pinching was recorded.
Key words: Marigold, variety, pinching, yield
A.A. Patade, K.V. Malshe and V.V. Sagvekar
Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri – 415712 (MS)
Feasibility of flower crops under coconut based cropping system in coastal ecosystem of Maharashtra State
Field experiment carried out at ICAR-AICRP on palms at Regional Coconut Research Station Bhatye, Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (MS) during 2013 to 2015 with flower crop combinations of T1-coconut alone (monocrop), T2– coconut + Jasminum sambac, T3– coconut + Jasminum multiflorum, T4– coconut + Lily spp., T5– coconut + Heliconia spp. and T6 – coconut + Michelia champaka, according to two years of data, showed that the lily flower recorded 1683811 numbers of spikes ha-1, Jasminum multiflorum recorded 48656 kg ha-1, Heliconia spp. recorded 96982.5 number of spikes ha-1, Jasminum Sambac recorded 1123.2 kg ha-1 follwed by Michelia champaka with only 12690 number of flowers only. In respect of economics, coconut +Lily spp. system recorded the highest gross return of Rs. 12,19,962/- ha-1 followed by Rs. 7,63,197/- in coconut + Jasminum multiflorum system. Coconut +Heliconia spp. recorded Rs. 6,37,495.25, coconut +Jasminum sambac Rs. 553102.53 and coconut +Michelia champaka the minimum gross return of Rs. 255672.00. The gross income realised in the monocropping of coconut was of Rs. 195300.00. The coconut nut yield realised during 2014-15 in the intercropping garden was 165 nuts palm-1 year-1 whereas in monocropping it was 96 nuts palm-1 year-1.
Key words : Coconut, intercropping, flower crops, lily, heliconia
V.V. Shinde, S.L. Ghavale, H.P. Maheswarappa and S.M. Wankhede
ICAR-All India Coordinated Research Project on Palms,
Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri (M.S.), India
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712