Insects are the largest group of hexapod invertebrates belonging to the Phylum Arthropoda. They are the major enemies of our crops in field and stored products. On one side are the beneficial entomofauna, which positively works for human welfare, whereas, the other side comprises of insect pests which cause a huge negative impact on human and his belongings. Unfortunately, nearly one-sixth of all crops grown worldwide are lost to herbivorous insects and the plant diseases they transmit. In addition to this, due to climate change coupled with intensification in agriculture, there has been a paradigm shift in infestation of insect pests both in time and space. Moreover, over the decade, food security at global level has also emerged as a concern at an alarming rate. The farmers use pesticides as first line of defence and frequently resort to indiscriminate and non-judicious use of pesticides for managing the insect pests. However, these lead to several problems, such as environmental pollution, pesticide residue in the harvested products, development of resistance/resurgence of pests, emergence of new pests, destruction of natural enemies and pollinators, and ultimately, increased cost of production. In this background, a paradigm shift in pest management approaches is urgently required. Such management strategies could be A) Mechanical methods, B) Physical methods, C) Legislative methods, and D) Cultural methods. The literature on these components is being focused in the present review.
Key words: Eco-friendly, Non-chemical methods, Organic, Pest management
R.A. Balikai, Madhurima Vinod and Soumya Desai
Department of Agricultural Entomology, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India
University of Agricultural Sciences, Raichur-584 104, Karnataka, India
The field experiment on impact of integrated nutrient management and organics including biomass recycling in coconut based cropping system was initiated on a 30 years old healthy D x T coconut plantation at Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri (M.S.) during the years 2013-14 to 2017-18. The experiment consisted of four treatments viz. T1 : 75% of recommended NPK +25% of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost, T2 : 50% of RDF+ 50% of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost + vermiwash application +bio-fertilizer application +in situ green manuring, T3 : 100% of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost +vermiwash application +biofertilizer application +in situ green manuring and green leaf manuring (glyricidia leaves) +composted coir pith, husk incorporation and mulching with coconut leaves and T4 : control: mono-crop of coconut with recommended NPK and organic manure were imposed. The component crops were nutmeg, cinnamon, banana and pineapple. Annual leaf production did not significantly differ among the treatments, however, integrated treatments resulted in higher number of leaves (30.46 Nos.). Five years pooled data on nut yield indicated that application of organic manures in combination with inorganic fertilizer either in 50% of RDF+50% of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost +vermiwash application +bio-fertilizer application +in situ green manuring (141.28 nuts/palm/year) or 75% of recommended NPK +25% of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost (126.33 nuts/palm/year) resulted the higher nut yield. There was improvement in the nutrient status of coconut leaves with integrated nutrient management practices compared to inorganic or organic manure alone application. The highest benefit: cost ratio (3.03) was recorded in T2 followed by T1 (2.81) as compared to the other treatments.
Key words: Coconut, INM, organic recycling, nutrient status, nut yield, microbial population
V.V. Shinde, S.L. Ghavale, S.M. Wankhede, P.M. Haldankar and H.P. Maheswarappa
AICRP on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri (M.S.), India
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712
Ash-1 collected after performing agnihotra with same materials without chanting mantras and timing Ash-2 collected after performing the agnihotra at sun rise and sun set with proper procedure. Different beneficial soil bacteria and yeast viz., Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (industrial yeast), Saccharomyces cerevisiae were inoculated in Nutrient Agar and Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose Agar medium containing Ash-1 and Ash-2. Growth of these microbes was recorded more in media containing Ash-2 and less in media having Ash-1. Growth of pathogens was restricted in Ash-2, while it was more in Ash-1.
Key words: Agnihotra ash, brown rice, cowdung patties, Aspergillus fumigatus and baker’s yeast.
RA Ram1, Neelima Garg2 and Priti3
ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, P.O. Kakori, Lucknow-226 101
1Principal Scientist (e-mail: email@example.com), Division of Crop Production, 2Principal Scientist and Head, Division of Post Harvest
Management (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), 3SRF, ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow-226 101,
Decomposition analysis of cereals production in Nagpur division
Agriculture is the most important sector of the Economy in India. Cereals, particularly, wheat and paddy are the mainstay for mitigating food grain requirement for the rising population. Consequently, efficient planning and development efforts are needed. The bottoms up approach i.e., plan for the development of agriculture at desegregated level or at district and/or regional levels and thereafter, aggregate it at the macro or state/country level, has been found useful. Very few such studies have been undertaken at the district/regional levels. The information, particularly, for different districts of Nagpur division and the division as a whole was not available. Consequntly, the present study attempts to undertake a decomposition analysis of cereal production in different districts of Nagpur Division along with the entire division for two periods, viz., Period-I: 1995-96 to 2004-2005; Period-II: 2005-06 to 2014-15; and Overall (Pooled) Period: 1995-96 to 2014-15. Compound growth rates (CGR) were worked out for area, production and yield for five districts, viz., Wardha, Nagpur, Bhandara, Chanderpur and Gadchiroli and the overall Nagpur division. The highest significant CGR in yield of wheat was 4.17 per cent in Gadhchiroli district, while for the production, the CGR for wheat was 4.19 per cent for the Nagpur division as a whole during overall period. The docomposition analysis indicated area effect for increasing production of wheat was maximum, i.e. 596.45 in Gadchiroli district followed by 421.13 in Bhandara district. In all the districts, the decomposition analysis indicated that cubic models provided best fit for area, production and productivity of wheat and rice.
Key words: Decomposition analysis, Compound Growth Rate (CGR), Wheat, Rice
S.B. Chavhan1, *K.J. Patil2 and B.N. Ganvir3
1 and 3 Department of Agricultural Economics and Statistics Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur-440 001,
2 Assistant professor, Department of Agril. Economics, Don Bosco College of Agriculture, Sulcorna, Quepem, Goa- 403 705
*Correspondence Email: email@example.com
Use of agricultural information by fertilizer and pesticide dealers in relation to their socio-economic parameters: a study in Coochbehar District
The source of agriculture information is a crucial point for farmers. They are getting agriculture information from variety of sources. Among these sources fertilizer and pesticide dealers play an important role in dissemination of information about agriculture practices to the farmers. They are in close contact with farmers. Dealers also diagnose the plants, pests and diseases and suggest some pesticide. But the questions arise as from which sources they gather these informations and disseminate it to the farmers. On the basis of above statement Coochbehar Krishi Vigyan Kendra organized an awareness programme of fertilizer and pesticide dealers of Coochbehar district in eastern zone of India to know the uses of information about agricultural practices with respect to their socio-economic variables. The study was conducted during February, 2016. Survey method was used to get responses of participants. Trainees available at the time of awareness programme were considered as respondents. Semi-structure interview schedule was used for collection of data. The sample size for the study was 50. The dependent variable of this study was source of information and independent variables were age, occupation, education, land holding, religion, family members and number of years associated with their occupation. The descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage and other statistical tools were used for the analysis of data.
Key words : Agricultural information, communication, awareness, socio-economic parameters
Ganesh Das, Suraj Sarkar, Sujan Biswas, Dipak Kumar Sinha and Sankar Saha
Coochbehar Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Uttar Benga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Coochbehar, (W.B.), India
Demonstration of three Seeding Methods and Two Varieties of Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) with Farmers’ Participatory approach in Hamelmalo Area, Eritrea
A demonstration was carried out on the seeding methods and varieties of Sorghum on farmers’ fields in two locations in Basheri and Genfolom (Hamelmalo area), ZobaAnseba, Eritrea during 2015/16 cropping season. Three methods of sowing (Direct, transplanting and hydro seed priming) and two varieties (Hamelmalo and Hariray) were demonstrated with a total of 6 treatments. A total of 20 farmers in each of the two locations participated in the evaluation of the sowing method at maturity using a scoring scale of 1 to 10. There was no significant difference among the varieties, method of sowing and the interaction in biomass. Hydro seed priming was better in biomass with 4650 kg/ha compared to transplanting (3023 kg/ha) with a difference of 1605 kg/ha or 53.1% increase, when averaged over the locations even though, it was non-significant. In grain yield, there was significant difference among the seeding methods with Hydro seed priming giving higher yield (962 kg/ha), which is an increase of 283 kg/ha or 41.7% compared to transplanting (679 kg/ha), when averaged over the locations. The evaluation by farmers was the highest for Hydro seed priming with a score of 8.13 compared to direct seeding, when averaged over the locations. The methods of planting were demonstrated to farmers by organizing field days in the two locations.
Key words: Demonstration, Hydro seed priming, Sorghum, Productivity, Semi-arid areas
Woldeamlak Araia, Syed Danish Yaseen Naqvi* and Abdulrezak Ahmedin
1Department of Agronomy, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea
2Department of Plant Protection, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea and
3Department of Agronomy, Hamelmalo Agricultural College, Eritrea