Mango stem borer has been observed to cause an alarming situation in old and young orchards posing a great threat to mango cultivation in India during the last decade. Five species of Batocera namely B.rufomacuata de Geer, B.rubus Linnaus, B.roylie Hope, B.numitor Newmen and B.titana Thompson have been reported infesting mango trees. Among them, B. rufomaculata, is increasingly becoming a menace in mango orchards across the country. The infestation is reported to be in the range of one to eight per cent depending upon maintenance of the orchards. Affected trees gradually loose their vigour, manifest drying of branches to in severe cases and even death ensues. The grubs are the damaging stage, they bore and eat below the bark, making tunnels, subsequently entering into main stem following feeding on wood causing damage. The fross coming out of the entry point indicates the presence of trunk borer in the mango tree. The severe damage results in yellowing of branches followed by drying of terminal shoots and branches ultimately leading to the death of whole tree, if not managed properly. This paper presents a detailed review of informations on their symptoms of damage, distribution, varietal reactions, alternate hosts, life history and the control measures.
Key words: Mango stem borer, distribution, varietal reaction, life history and management
Gundappa Baradevanal1, R.P. Srivatsava1 and Kumarnag K.M.2
1ICAR-Central Institute for Subtropical Horticulture, Rehmankhera, Lucknow-266101
2ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012
The study carried out to isolate and evaluate efficient Rhizbium cultures from guar and moth bean plants grown at farmers’ fields in arid districts of western Rajasthan showed that the GBR-2 and GBK-21-2 cultures from guar and MBR-8 and MBK-15 from moth bean grew fast and developed wet and gummy colonies on YEMA plates within 24- 48 hrs. Cultures of GBR-2 and GBK-21-2 also exhibited better plant biomass in nursery and 15-18 per cent higher yield and nodulation over the uninoculated control under field conditions. MBR-8 and MBK-15 also exhibited higher plant biomass in nursery and higher yield (up to 19 %) and nodulation over the uninoculated control under field conditions. MBR-8 was used for studying the shelf life of the liquid bioformulations for later use as bioinoculant. The liquid bioformulations having polyethylene glycol (0.5%) or gum arabic (0.5%) as cell protectants or top layer of castor oil retained viable cell density (e” 1010 cfu ml-1) up to 180d after storage.
Key words: Arid legumes, Rhizobium, cell protectant, liquid bioformulation
Anjly Pancholy* and S.K. Singh
Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur (Rajasthan) India
The field experiment conducted on systems approach in coconut for higher productivity and profitability in coastal ecosystem at ICAR-AICRP on Palms, Regional coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri, (DBSKKV, Dapoli), Maharastra during the year 2013-14 to 2017-18, showed that the application of organic manures in combination with inorganic fertilizer either in 75 per cent of recommended NPK +25 per cent of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost or 50 per cent of RDF+50 per cent of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost +vermiwash application +bio-fertilizer application +in situ green manuring resulted in higher yield of 141.28 nuts palm-1 year-1 and 126.33 nuts palm-1 year-1, respectively. Soil organic carbon was higher, where 75 per cent of recommended NPK +25 per cent of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost (T1) was added. Microbial population of fungi were higher where 100 per cent of N through organic recycling with vermi-compost +vermiwash application +bio-fertilizer application +in situ green manuring and green leaf manuring +composted coir pith, husk incorporation and mulching with coconut leaves (T3) was added, whereas the bacteria and actinomycetes present in top soil were higher in the former treatment where 50 per cent RDF + 50 per cent N through organic reyching with vermicompost + vermiwash + bio-fertilizer + in situ, respectively was given. Earthworm population was highest in the treatment T3 followed by the treatment T1 and T2. Highest (3.03) benefit:cost ratio was recorded in T1 followed by T2 (2.81) as against the control having monocrop of coconut with recommended NPK and organic manure.
Key words: Coconut, INM, organic recycling, nutrient status, nut yield
V.V. Shinde, S.L. Ghavale, S.M. Wankhede, P.M. Haladankar and H.P. Maheswarappa
AICRP on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri (M.S.), India
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712