ICAR (NAAS Rating 5.36 ) Approval No : ID-154 | ISSN No: 2229 -628X (Print) | eISSN - 2582-2683 (Online) | RNI No: UPENG/2006/22736 | UGC Approved Journal | Society Registration No: 131380 | Society ISO 9001 :2015 certified | Certification No. QMS/092020/17596 | PAN regn no. AABAD0614R | PFMS Regn: DKEBVS
Journal For The Year 2024 First Issue
GC-MS, anti-oxidant, anti diabetics and anti-fungal potential of dye extract obtained from Tectona grandis L. leaves

Tectona grandis is an important dye-producing tree that is used as a colouring agent in the textile and food industries. The leaves of Tectona grandis are used to treat anuria, urinary retention, bronchitis, leukoderma, dysentery, stomach pain, and it can also stimulate hair growth. Antifungal, in vitro anti-oxidant, anti-diabetics assay of methanol solvent extracts obtained from the leaves of Tectona grandis (TG) were investigated. The dye extraction yield was higher in dye extracts extracted using ultrasonication (5.8%), followed by boiling (4.2%). Methanolic extract had the highest DPPH IC50 of 49.06±0.93 and metal chelating activity in teak dye extract of 82.36±0.19. Methanolic extract inhibited á-amylase strongly, with an IC50 of 39.41±0.67. Plant dye extract demonstrated significant antifungal activity against C. albicans (8.25±0.49), A. fumigatus (6.30±0.41), C. glabrata (6.25±0.49), and A. flavus (5.45±0.44) at higher concentrations, respectively. The result of present investigation proved that methanolic extract of T.grandis leaves could be used as a promising natural antioxidant with potential diabetic activity and antifungal properties. So, the dye obtained from T.grandis might be used as a therapeutic agent in textile and food industry.

Key words: Tectona grandis, natural dye, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetics.

Amutha*, R. Sagaya Giri and M. Ayyanar

Department of Botany, Kunthavai Naachiyaar Government Arts College for Women (A), Thanjavur – 613007, Tamil Nadu, India.

E-mail: amuthakarunanithi14@gmail.com

Ecofriendly vase solution using green tea and cinnamon extracts for extending the vase life of black centered gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L.) cv. Intense

Extending the vase life of flowers is a crucial aspect of the floricultural industry. However, to date, inorganic chemicals have been widely and predominantly used in this industry. Therefore, researchers are now in search of effective, eco-friendly and sustainable floral preservatives. Plant based floral preservatives have become the main focus in this direction. The present study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of plant-based extracts as potential viable, ecofriendly floral preservative solutions. The experiment consisted of 3 treatments each of green tea extract (GTE) and cinnamon powder extract (CPE) @ 2, 2.5 and 3 g l-1 and the control. The results showed that treatment CPE (3 g l-1) had the maximum vase life (12.93 days), daily water uptake (16.57 ml-1 2 day), total water uptake (86.91 ml), relative fresh weight (120.59%), MSI (79.44%) and lowest CFU counts (5.12 log10 CFU ml-1) at the end of the experiment. This was followed by GTE (3 g l-1) for all the parameters recorded. The treatments green tea and cinnamon powder extracts were effective and significantly improved the postharvest quality of flowers over control.

Keywords: Green tea extract, cinnamon extract, ecofriendly floral preservatives, vase life, gerbera.

Tadar Jamja*1, Ruthy Tabing2, Shaik Faheem Akhtar3 and Priyanka Boruah4

1,4Department of Horticulture, 2Department of Plant Pathology and 3Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

E-mail: tadar.jamja.adj20@aau.ac.in

Physiological basis of sunburn development and its management in capsicum

The present investigation was carried out at SKUAST-K, Shalimar, Srinagar during the years 2019 and 2020 to understand the response of five capsicum varieties/hybrids to sunburn development under high temperature and light intensity, their physiological bases and management strategies. Results indicated that California Wonder (CW) showed lowest sunburn incidence (11.5%) and severity (2.5), while Shalimar Capsicum Hybrid I (SCHI) resulted in highest sunburn incidence (27.8%) and severity (3.8) without any kaolin spray. CW also showed lower level of chlorophyll (0.58mg g-1) and higher level of carotenoid (0.17mg g-1) with low chl: car ratio (3.4) compared to a higher level of chlorophyll (0.70mg g-1) with lower level of carotenoid (0.07mg g-1) and higher chl: car ratio (10.0). These genotypes viz., CW and SCHI, were foliar sprayed with different levels of kaolin and spray of kaolin (4.0%) proved as most effective treatment in reducing the sunburn incidence and severity in both the genotypes. Sunburn incidence and severity were reduced from 19.7 to 7.7 per cent and 3.2 to 1.7, respectively. Therefore, foliar application of 4.0 per cent kaolin may be used to reduce the sunburn incidence in capsicum.

Key words: Capsicum, carotenoid, chlorophyll, chl: car ratio, sunburn, kaolin.

Farooq A. Khan1*, Sumati Narayan1, Khursheed Ahmad1, Faheemullah Khan1, Mohammad Amir2, Astha3 and Moinuddin4

1Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190025, J&K, India.

2LPU, Phagwara, Kapurthala – 144411 (Punjab); 3RVSKVV, Gwalior – 474002 (M.P.), India.

4SGRR University, Dehradun – 248121 (Uttrakhand) India.

E-mail : drkhan_387@skuastkashmir.ac.in

Genetic Studies
Genetic variability studies in ecotypes of banana (Musa AAB plantain subgroup)

The study was under taken in the Department of Fruit Science, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Kerala with the objective to assess the Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV), genetic advance and heritability associated with yield and yield attributing characters. The study revealed that considerable variability existed between different ecotypes of plantain. Number of fingers exhibited the highest GCV (36.93%) and PCV (37.04%) among the yield and yield attributing characters computed. Heritability was high for all the characters except girth of pseudostem. Genetic advance was high for all the characters except plant height, pseudostem girth, number of leaves and girth of finger. The association analysis revealed that bunch weight was significantly and positively correlated with number of hands and fingers/bunch, pedicel strength index, plant height, pseudostem girth and total crop duration both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. Characters like number of fingers and bunch weight with high heritability coupled with high genetic gain could be used for selection based crop improvement programmes to develop high yielding Nendran types.

Key words: Nendran, ecotype, heritability, genetic advance, correlation, Musa.

Annjoe Villamthanathu Joseph*1 and Simi Shibu2

1Deptartment of Horticulture, Naini Agricultural Institute, SHUATS, Prayagraj-211007, Uttar Pradesh, India.

2Deptartment of Fruit Science, College of Agriculture, Vellayani-695522, Kerala, India.

E-mail: annjoevjoseph43@gmail.com

Morphological characterization of turmeric (Curcuma spp.) genotypes

Thirteen genotypes of turmeric were morphologically characterized, based on twenty-four characters of DUS guidelines, during 2021-22 at Jawahar Model, JNKVV, Jabalpur (M.P.). Turmeric crop was planted in polypropylene bags, the used fertilizer bags available with the farmers. The experiment was performed in a randomized block design and replicated thrice. The study revealed that the genotypes Roma, Selam, Cuddapah and Waigaon were the better genotypes. Some distinctive features were observed among the  genotypes  viz., reddish pseudostem  colouration on leaf in Black turmeric, pinkish colouration on the periphery of rhizome in Amada turmeric and presence of nodulose roots in Amada  and Black turmeric at  the time of harvest. Variation was prominent in inner core colour of rhizomes, an indication of quality and chemical constituents. Variability observed with the help of DUS descriptor is an effective tool for trait specific selection, germplasm conservation and maintenance.

Keywords: Morphological characterization, DUS, polypropylene   bags, turmeric.

Sakshi Agrawal1, Reena Nair1, Moni Thomas2, Gopilal Anjana3, Sahab K. Patel3, Pragya Uikey4*, Sandeep Birla3, Jethu Singh3 and Niraj Tripathi5

1Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482004, M.P., India 2Institute of Agri-business Management, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482004, M.P., India 3Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482004, M.P., India

4Deptment of Vegetable Science, College of Agriculture, O.U.A.T., Bhubaneswar-751003, Odisha, India

5Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur-482004, M.P., India

E-mail: uikeypragya@gmail.com

Nursery Studies
Ergonomic evaluation of uprooting of paddy seedlings in mat nursery

Uprooting of paddy seedlings is one of the drudgery  prone farm activities. A study  was  carried out to  assess the physiological workload and energy expenditures of farm women while uprooting from mat nursery. A stepstool technique was adopted for assessing physical fitness of the participants. Heart rate was recorded with Heart Rate Monitor and Rating of Perceived Exertion was calculated using Borg’s 5 point rating scale. The mean height was 151.07 cm and mean weight was 45.47 kg. Most of the respondents (46%) were having ‘high average’ physical fitness followed by 33 per cent in ‘below average’ category. Working heart rate values  while  uprooting in mat nursery (HR 86.16 b min-1) was lower as compared to uprooting in wet bed (HR 128.56 b min-1). Energy expenditure values were worked out to be 6.63 kJ min-1 and 11.86 kJ min-1 for mat nursery and wet bed, respectively. The physiological workload of uprooting in mat nursery was categorized as ‘very light’ and wet bed as ‘heavy’ on the basis of heart rate and energy expenditures. There was no significant difference in yield from seedlings of mat nursery and wet bed. Mat nursery is a suitable alternative to wet bed for reducing physiological and muscular stress, and labour cost.

Key words: Uprooting, mat nursery, physical fitness, heart rate, physiological workload, stress.

Kalita, B. Bhuyan* and R. Borah

Department of Family Resource Management and Consumer Science, College of Community Science, AAU, Jorhat-785-013, Assam, India.

E-mail: bijoylaxmi.bhuyan@aau.ac.in

Key mortality factors of fall army worm (Spodoptera frugiperda) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on rabi sorghum

This investigation on the Spodoptera frugiperda was conducted at the Post Graduate Experimental Field of Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Campus Latur during 2020-21. The study showed that the mortality in early instar larvae of S. frugiperda attacking on rabi sorghum was 8.32 and 10.00 per cent owing to the parasitisation of Aleiodes sp. during first and second generation, respectively. While 14.28 per cent larvae in early instar stage also recorded parasitisation due to Coccygidium melleum during first generation. However, in the early stages of larval development, the mortality rates were 14.28, 8.32 and 9.08 per cent due to physical injury, the SfMNPV and Mermithidae nematodes, respectively, during the second generation. The highest mortality in S. frugiperda populations during the first and second generations occurred in the late instar larval and early instar larval stages, with mortality rates of k=0.138 and k=0.192, respectively. This investigation highlights the influence of both living organisms (biotic factors) and non-living factors (abiotic factors) in driving population fluctuations of S. frugiperda during the rabi season.

Key words: Aleiodes sp., Coccygidium melleum, Mermithidae, physical injury, mortality, late instar larval, SfMNPV, Spodoptera frugiperda, sorghum.

S.K. Meena* and V.K. Bhamare

Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Latur 413512, Maharashtra, India.

E-mail: sharadkumarmeena01@gmail.com

Tolerant native isolates of Beauveria bassiana with commonly used pesticides in Kerala

Compatibility of three native isolates of Beauveria bassiana [OP271760 (BTL1), OP290199 (BTL2) and OP292066 (PKDE)] with five commonly used insecticides (imidacloprid, chlorantranilprole, cypermethrin, thiamethoxam and spinosad) and three fungicides (carbendazim, copper oxychloride and hexaconazole) were tested to identify and incorporate the compatible strain(s) in IPM. The B. bassiana isolate PKDE was compatible with most insecticides commonly used in Kerala except quinalphos. There was more than 80 per cent growth when checking compatibility with chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. The isolates, BTL1 and BTL2 showed slight compatibility with insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, imidacloprid,   thiamethoxam   and   cypermethrin   with   20-40 per cent growth. Spinosad was 90 to 100 per cent compatible with all three isolates of B. bassiana in the present study. Among fungicides, hexaconazole and carbendazim completely inhibited the growth of all three isolates, whereas copper oxychloride showed 89 per cent compatibility with the isolate PKDE.

Key words: Beauveria bassiana, biopesticide, compatibility, insecticides, fungicides, scoring.

Nimisha1*, K.B. Deepthy1, Haseena Bhaskar1, Mani Chellappan1, Reshmy Vijayaraghavan1 and T.V. Aravindakshan2

1College of Agriculture, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur-680656, Kerala, India.

2Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Mannuthy, Thrissur-680651, Kerala, India.

E-mail: nimishadevadas33@gmail.com

An insight review of invasive black thrips (Thrips parvisipinus) in chilli

India is the largest producer and exporter of chillies contributing to almost one-fourth of the world’s production. The important chilli growing states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Karnataka and also in a number of other states as round the year crop. In chilli, sucking pests cause 60 to 75 per cent yield loss. Recently, invasion of Thrips parvispinus was reported in India causing a widespread severe infestation in more than 0.4 million ha of chilli growing areas. Large scale cultivation of host plants and favourable climatic conditions in India and other countries similar to native range, favour its further spread and establishment. The pest completes its life cycle within 14-15 days and both nymphs and adults lacerate on flowers, leaves and small fruits. So, it is need of the hour to understand this pest in terms of its distribution, host range and damage potentiality to formulate suitable management strategies.

Key words: Thrips parvispins, black thrips, chilli, invasive pest, lifecycle, management strategy.

G.P. Shetty, A. Meghana*, H.G. Niranjan and M. Narayana Swamy

Multiplex Group of Companies, # 180 Mahalaxmipuram, Bengaluru-560086, Karnataka, India

E-mail: meghamnj549@gmail.com

Comparative quality traits of Apis meliifera L. queens raised through standard queen rearing methods in the spring breeding season

The present investigation was undertaken to assess the quality traits of Apis meliifera L. queens raised through standard queen rearing methods namely Doolittle, Miller, Smith and Swarming instinct during the spring breeding season 2016-17 at the Experimental Apiary located at Bee Research Station, Nagrota Bagwan, CSK HPKV, Himachal Pradesh. A fixed number (n = 24) and age (d” 24 hours) of either larvae (Doolittle) or eggs (Miller and Smith) were used to rear the queen cells. The significantly highest acceptance was recorded for Doolittle method (13.50 ± 1.44; 56.25%) followed by Miller method (11.25 ± 1.31; 46.88%), while the acceptance was least for the Smith method (10.25 ± 1.31; 42.71%). The maximum number of sealed queen cells colony-1   (9.00 ± 1.22) and neonate queens colony-1   (6.00 ± 0.91) were also witnessed in the Doolittle method followed by the Miller method (8.00 ± 1.08 sealed queen cells colony-1; 4.25 ± 0.85 queens colony-1) and Smith method (7.75 ± 0.85 queen cells colony-1; 2.75 ± 0.62 queens colony-1). The Doolittle method also produced the largest queen cells (25.86 ± 0.89 × 12.11 ± 0.23 mm) followed by the Miller method (25.00 ± 0.33 × 11.93 ± 0.44 mm), whereas the smallest queen cells (21.12 ± 0.24 × 10.23 ± 0.75 mm) were witnessed in the colonies with Swarming instinct. The newly emerged queens from Doolittle, Miller, Swarming instinct and Smith methods had the mean body weights of 201.75 ± 10.06, 191.00 ± 8.82, 186.75 ± 6.54 and 184.00 ± 7.73 mg, respectively. The queens raised using the Doolittle method, initiated egg laying 3-4 days earlier (18.75 ± 0.48 days) compared to other methods (22.00 ± 0.41 days in Miller; 22.25 ± 0.48 days in Smith and 22.50 ± 0.87 days in Swarming instinct method). Overall, the Doolittle method produced the highest quality queens and Miller method was the next best. The  Doolittle method could be used for mass rearing of high-quality queens on a commercial scale.

Keywords: Honey bee, Apis mellifera, queen rearing, Doolittle method, Miller method, Smith method, Swarming instinct.

Rajan Kamboj1, Surender K. Sharma*2, Mandeep Rathee3, Naveen Rao4 and Aslam Khan1

1Department of Entomology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

2Bee Research Station, Nagrota Bagwan, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya, Palampur-136027, Himachal Pradesh, India.

3Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kaithal, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, Haryana, India.

4Regional Research Station, Faridkot, PAU, Ludhiana-141027, Punjab, India.

E-mail: surender.brs@gmail.com

Screening of dual purpose maize in inbreds against fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

The fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) is a major cause of crop loss and food insecurity. There is a need to identify maize genetic resources with FAW resistance for breeding. The objectives of this study were to screen 30 fodder maize inbreds and to select inbred with FAW resistance. Out of total 30 fodder maize inbreds evaluated, seven inbreds viz., JK-1553, CDM-330, CDM-330/Y, DDM-207, PML-36, LM-14 and C-79 were categorized as partially resistant, 15   inbreds   viz., PDM-6555, C-70, CDM-112   B, CM-213, DDM-309, C-11, C-8, PDM-4611C, TC-12, PDM-77-4, CDM-105, CML-565, JK-1800, DIM-204A, CM-213B were categorized as susceptible and eight inbreds namely, PDM-24_1, PML-46, PML-85, PML-45, PML-43, CM-142, CM-150, CM-151 were grouped as highly susceptible fodder maize inbreds. None of the above inbreds was classified as either highly resistant or resistant categories.

Keywords: Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda,  fodder, maize inbred.

S.R. Ganavi1, N.S. Kulkarni2* and Jayant S. Bhat3

1Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Agriculture, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad – 580 005, Karnataka, India.

2Department of Agricultural Entomology, ICAR-IGFRI, SRRS, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India.

3Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, ICAR-IARI, RRC, Dharwad-580 005, Karnataka, India.

E-mail: narendraask1@gmail.com

Influence of five lepidopteran host insects on the fecundity and development of a larval parasitoid Bracon hebetor Say

A gregarious larval ectoparasitoid of multiple host species of lepidoptera, Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), is associated with field and stored products. This study examined the suitability of five lepidopteran host species from three families for the growth and reproduction of B. hebetor. Petridishes and small containers were used in the experiments. The preference and suitability of the third, fourth, and fifth larval instars of rice moth (Pyralidae), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), greater wax moth (Pyralidae), Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus), fall armyworm (Noctuidae), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith), tobacco caterpillar (Noctuidae), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), and black headed caterpillar (Xyloryctidae), Opisina arenosella (Walker) for the development of B. hebetor were evaluated. The oviposition rate of B. hebetor was high in 3rd instar larvae of G. mellonella, followed by 5th instar larva of S. frugiperda, S.litura, C. cephalonica, and O. arenosella. Adult emergence was greater in the 5thinstar larva of G. mellonella than in the other hosts. The third instar larva of G. mellonella was found to be the best host for the oviposition and development of B. hebetor. Hence, G. mellonella could be recommended for mass rearing of B. hebetor in a biological control programme.

Keywords: Bracon hebetor, Corcyra cephalonica, Galleria mellonella, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera litura, Opisina arenosella.

Aswini R.*1, S. Jeyarajan Nelson1, N. Chitra1, M. Alagar1, S. Mohan Kumar2 and D. Elumalai3

1Department of Agricultural Entomology, TNAU, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

2Department of Plant Biotechnology, TNAU, Coimbatore-641003, Tamil Nadu, India.

3Department of Agricultural Entomology, Adhiyamaan College of Agriculture and Research, Krishnagiri, 635105, Tamilnadu,India.

E-mail: aswiniramesh2000@gmail.com

Using bio-pesticides to control the black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota naevana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on apple, Malus domestica, in the mid-hill Himalayas of Kashmir

The black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota naevana (Hubner 1817) is emerging as a major apple pest. The use of pesticides in apples leads to health and environmental risks. Biopesticides are considered an effective alternative to synthetic insecticides especially on fruit crops consumed as fresh by consumers. Field trials were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate three biopesticides, namely, emamectin benzoate 5% SG, azadirachtin 0.03% EC and spinosad 45% SC under field conditions in comparison with the insecticide chlorpyrifos 20% EC. The results revealed that emamectin benzoate and spinosad showed the highest toxicity when used at medium and high concentrations followed by a high tested concentration of azadirachtin when compared with standard check chlorpyrifos. The trees treated with high tested concentrations of spinosad recorded maximum larval mortality (95.24 and 95.83% at pea size and 96.30 and 95.24% at nut size fruit stage during 2018 and 2019, respectively) and emamectin benzoate (93.33 and 100% at pea size and 92.50 and 95.24% at nut size fruit stage during 2018 and 2019, respectively). However, azadirachtin was found more effective up to 10 days of application at all three tested concentrations. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad were found suitable for controlling blackheaded fireworm in India.

Keywords: Bio-pesticides, field efficacy, fruit, quality, Rhopobota naevana.

Sheikh Khursheed1*, Z.A. Bhat1, Muzafar Mir2, G.H. Rather1, Hamidullah Itoo1, M.A. Mir1, Kounser Javeed1 and Rafiq A. Shah1

1Ambri Apple Research Centre, Shopian, Faculty of Horticulture, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Srinagar-190025, J&K, India.

2KVK, Poonch, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu-185101, J&K, India.

E-mail: sheikhento@gmail.com

Evaluation of various botanical extracts against Hellula undalis Fabricius infesting cabbage

The investigation was conducted at Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari, Gujarat during rabi 2021-22. All the botanical extracts Adhatoda vasica L., Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Lantana camara L., Annona squamosa L., Jatropha curcas L., Andrographis paniculata L., Datura metel Damro, Ocimum basilicum L. and Melia dubia Kadbevu, were found to be effective against Hellula undalis Fabricius. Among them, A. indica extract was found to be the most effective which was at par with L. camara and A. paniculate. Whereas, J. curcas was the least. However, there was no significant difference in the number of coccinellids between the treatments after two spray applications of aqueous leaves extracts indicating the low or negligible side effects of botanicals to beneficial insects. Furthermore, the maximum yield of marketable heads was obtained from plots treated with A. indica extract and the minimum yield was recorded in J. curcas treated plots but was significantly superior over control.

Keywords: Botanical extracts, cabbage, Hellula undalis Fabricius, south Gujarat.

D.A. Bharodiya1 and M.K. Jena2*

1Department of Plant Protection, ASPEE College of Horticulture and Forestry, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari – 396450, Gujarat, India. 2*Section of Applied Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Horticulture Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: d003208@sggw.edu.pl

Evaluation of biorationals and insecticides against coconut rugose spiralling whitefly (Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin)

Palms treated with T7–Soap nut @ 1 per cent recorded minimum incidence of coconut rugose spiralling whitefly (17.2%), which was significantly superior over T10–Untreated control (34.5%) and found at par with T2- Lambda cyhalothrin + starch solution @1 per cent (20.5%), T3- Deltamethrin + starch solution @1 per cent (21.1%), T1- Imidacloprid + starch solution @1 per cent (21.9%), T8- Soap water (23.3%), T4- Buprofezin + starch solution @1 per cent (24.1%), T5- Pongamia oil + starch solution @1 per cent (26.4%), T6- Lecanicilium lecanii (26.5%) and T9- Water spray (29.1%). The minimum RSW intensity (9%) noticed in T7 was at par with rest of the treatments and found significantly superior over  T10 (23%). The T7 treatment recorded minimum RSW populations (21.5 nos) followed by T2 (23.7nos) and was found significantly superior over T10 (41.6 nos). Highest Encarsia parasitism and natural enemies (predators/spiders), respectively were found in T10 (40.7% and 2.1 nos) and was par with T9 (35.6% and 1.75 nos.), T8 (32.7% and 1.48 nos.) and T7 (29.2% and 1.53 nos.).

Keywords: Biological suppression, biointensive management, biorationals, coconut, eco-friendly measures, palms, invasive whiteflies, IPM, starch solution.

S.M. Wankhede*, V.V. Shinde, S.L. Ghavale and K.V. Malshe

AICRP on Palms, Regional Coconut Research Station, Bhatye, Ratnagiri-415 612,

Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415 712, Maharashtra, India

E-mail: drsantoshwankhede@gmail.com

Evaluation of efficacy of inert materials against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) on stored wheat

The investigation was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of inert materials against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae) on stored wheat in the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India, during 2021-22 at 30.25 ± 0.25ºC temperature and 75.00 ± 5.06 per cent relative humidity. All the treatments, T1– wood ash, T2– saw dust, T3– sand, T4– cow dung ash, T5– kaolinite clay, T6– diatomaceous earth and T7– silica powder, were effective in controlling the S. cerealella and were superior to T8– untreated check. The treatment T6 had shown significantly the highest mortality (81.67%) followed by T5 (73.33%) and T7 (71.67%). However, the least effective treatments were T2 (58.33%), T3 (61.67%) and T4 (65.00%).

Keywords: Efficacy, inert materials, Sitotroga cerealella, stored wheat.

Manoj Kumar Jena1*, Saswati Pradhan2 and Satikanta Sahoo3

1*Section of Applied Entomology, Department of Plant Protection, Institute of Horticulture Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland.

2Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, India.

3 Department of Botany, N.C. (Autonomous) College, Jajpur-755001, Odisha, India.

E-mail: d003208@sggw.edu.pl

Efficacy of organic products as repellents and feeding deterrents against hadda beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (Fabricius)

The study was conducted on hadda beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, to find out the repellent and antifeedant activity of certain   organic   products   viz., Dashparni,   Panchgavya,   Darekastra,   Agniastra,   Brahmastra, Cow urine, Tamralassi, Fermented butter milk and biopesticide (Neem baan 1500 ppm) by leaf dip method of bioassay against second instar grubs of H. vigintioctopunctata in laboratory conditions. Among the organic products, Neem baan showed maximum repellent and antifeedant activity followed by Dashparni. Per cent repellence varied from 7.50 to 79.25 per cent after two hours in different organic products, whereas antifeedance after 24 hours varied from 8.69 to 71.49 per cent (based on the per cent leaf area consumed). Per cent repellence and antifeedance shown by different organic products in decreasing order: Neem Baan > Dashparni > Panchgavya > Darekastra > Agniastra > Brahmastra > Cow urine > Tamralassi > Fermented butter milk.

Key words: Antifeedant, biopesticide, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, organic products, per cent repellent.

Jenia Thakur* and Surjeet Kumar

Department of Entomology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana-141004, Punjab, India

E-mail: jenia.thakur1995@gmail.com

Eco-friendly management of red spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch on Okra

The present investigation was carried out at Horticultural Instructional Farm, C. P. College of Agriculture, S. D. Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar during the summer of 2022. Among seven tested botanicals,   azadirachtin at 0.03 per cent (7.01 mites 2 cm-2 leaf area), NSKE at 5 per cent (7.23 mites 2 cm-2 leaf area) and neemastra at 100 per cent (7.74 mites 2 cm-2 leaf area) were found most effective and showed the minimum mite population. Treatments bhramastra at 3 per cent, agnistra at 3 per cent and ardusi leaf extract at 5 per cent were found moderately effective for mites in okra (10.26, 11.13 and 12.32 mites 2 cm-2 leaf area). The treatment noni fruit juice extract at 2 per cent was found less effective in reducing mite population.

Keywords: Botanicals, okra,  azadirachtin, NSKE.

C.P. Prajapati1*, P.S. Patel1, M.K. Chandaragi2 and S. Deb1

1Department of Entomology, C. P. College of Agriculture,

2Center for Oilseeds Research,

Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar- 385 506, Gujarat, India.

E-mail: chintanprajapati2002@gmail.com

Evaluating the efficacy of Steinernema abbasi PN 1 isolate against rice moth Corcyra cephalonica

The findings indicated that higher concentrations of the EPN isolate led to higher mortality rates among the larvae. The results highlighted the effectiveness of S. abbasi in controlling the population of C. cephalonica larvae. The EPN isolate demonstrated strong pathogenicity, resulting in significant mortality rates. These findings supported the potential use of S. abbasi as a biocontrol agent for managing C. cephalonica larvae. Overall, the study demonstrated the promising pathogenic potential of the indigenous EPN isolate, providing valuable insights for future research in controlling the C. cephalonica and use of C. cephalonica, 5th instar larvae in mass multiplication of the nematode for pest management strategies.

Keyword: Steinernema abbasi, Corcyra cephalonica, efficacy, eco-friendly, LC50.

A.V. Moorthy*, Mamtha Joshi, R.P. Maurya and Renu Pandey

Department of Entomology, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, 263145, Uttarakhand, India.

E-mail: moorthyagri96@gmail.com

Plant Pathology
Potential of Trichoderma spp. to control smut disease of sugarcane under sub-tropical conditions of India

Sugarcane smut, caused by Sporisorium scitamineum, is a sett borne disease causing considerable losses to sugarcane production especially in ratoon crops. In the present study, five isolates of Trichoderma, established from sugarcane rhizosphere (STr-83, 85 and 108) and root tissues (SER-10 and 42), were evaluated in vitro and in field for their potential to mange smut disease. The selected five isolates had previously established high antagonistic activity against sugarcane red rot and wilt diseases. The metabolites of all five isolates exhibited inhibitory activity against S. scitamineum resulting in considerable reduction in the pathogen growth (21.2 to 42.4%) as well as teliospore germination in vitro. Metabolites of endophytic isolate SER-10 showed highest inhibition in pathogen growth (42.4%) along with lowest teliospore germination. The suppressive potential of the five Trichoderma isolates when applied as sett and soil treatment was further evaluated in a field trial during 2021-22 crop season. Four of the five Trichoderma isolates resulted in considerable suppression in smut incidence (22.8 to 66.9% reduction) over control. Isolates STr-83 and isolate SER 42 were found most effective, reducing smut by 66.9 and 49.3 per cent, respectively, over control and also exhibited significantly higher yield (49.8% and 25.2% yield increase, respectively). These findings indicated that the identified Trichoderma isolates could be   used for effective management of multiple sugarcane diseases, including smut, under field conditions.

Keywords: Sugarcane smut, biocontrol, Trichoderma, endophytes.

Deeksha Joshi1* and S.K. Goswami2

1Division of Plant Pathology, ICAR- Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India.

2Division of Crop Protection, ICAR-Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow-226002, U.P., India.

E-mail: 14deeksha@gmail.com

Evaluation of spring wheat germplasms in response to disease resistance against spot blotch disease

Spot blotch disease, caused by the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, is one of the most important foliar blight limiting wheat production in the world’s warmer regions. The field experiment was conducted to determine the response to spot blotch in spring wheat. WAMI- Wheat Association Mapping Initiative panel comprised 289 elite spring wheat lines, and one resistant (Yangmai 6) and one susceptible (Sonalika) varieties were evaluated against artificial epiphytotic condition at two spot blotch hot spot locations in India during 2018-2020 cropping seasons. It was noted that the mean area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) value resulted in 7 resistant, 37 moderately resistant, 227 moderately susceptible, and 18 susceptible genotypes were observed during the 2018-2020 in BHU location whereas, 6 resistant, 24 moderately resistant, 222 moderately susceptible and 37 susceptible genotypes were observed during the 2018-2020 in BISA location. However, 4 genotypes exhibited spot blotch resistance reactions that were stable at both locations, 8 genotypes showed a moderately resistant reaction, 178 moderately susceptible and 6 susceptible. The genotypes which showed consistent spot blotch resistance in two locations are being used as spot blotch resistance sources for future spot blotch disease-resistant breeding programs.

Keywords: Wheat, Bipolaris sorokiniana, resistance, disease screening and AUDPC.

Thirunarayanan P*, Ram Chandra and Tulasi Korra

Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.

E-mail: agrithirunarayanan@gmail.com

Management of Alternaria leaf spot of ashwagandha through eco-friendly inputs

The Alternaria leaf spot disease of ashwagandha is a significant and concerning issue, posing a major threat to the crop’s health and productivity. The use of eco-friendly inputs provides an approach to effectively managing disease and contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution. Six organic inputs were tested under in vitro conditions against Alternaria alternata. Panchagavya was found effective in inhibiting the pathogen which showed 89.28 per cent growth inhibition. Among the six treatments tested under field conditions, the foliar application of three sprays of neem leaf extract, 10 per cent (1 l 10 l-1 of water) at 15 days intervals recorded minimum per cent disease intensity (22.93%) with maximum yield (668 kg ha-1), which was statistically at par with foliar spray of azadirachtin (0.03% EC, 0.00015%).

Key words: Alternaria alternata, ashwagandha, eco-friendly.

U.H. Bhimani* and N.M. Gohel

Department of Plant Pathology, B. A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110, Gujarat, India.

E-mail: urjabhimani@gmail.com

Investigation on screening of diverse potato germplasm associated with black scurf resistance

Black scurf disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn has emerged as a major problem and is known to cause qualitative and quantitative losses in potato. The present investigation was carried out at the Agricultural Research Farm, Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo during 2021-22 and 2022-23. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications in pre infected field having adequate inoculum of R. solani to evaluate thirteen potato varieties for resistance against black scurf. The disease severity was monitored after harvest. The results revealed that in field plots, none of the varieties showed immune reaction among thirteen varieties. Kufri Pukhraj figured highly susceptible, whereas Kufri Sindhuri exhibited resistance with less than 1 per cent disease severity under Malwa region of Punjab state. Additionally, other varieties showed resistant response (Kufri Frysona, Kufri Lalima, Kufri Jawahar and Kufri Kanchan) and four varieties, namely Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Lauvkar and Kufri Chandramukhi, were found moderate resistant. Varietal resistance was the most economical and environment friendly method to control the disease severity of black scurf.

Key words: Potato, germplasm, screening, black scurf, Rhizoctonia solani.

Amanpreet Singh Sran1, Jasvinder Kaur Sran2, Tannu3, V. S. Pahil1, Bihari Singh2 and Bahaderjeet Singh1*

1College of Agriculture, Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda-151302, Punjab, India.

2Department of Environmental Science, Nalanda Open University, Patna-800001, Bihar, India.

3Department of Agriculture, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Ambala-133203, Haryana, India.

E-mail: sidhubahaderjit@yahoo.in

In vitro efficacy of bio-agents and botanicals against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae

The present study focuses on the collection, isolation and evaluation of different bio-agents and botanicals for their effectiveness against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease in pomegranates. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected from orchards of major pomegranate-growing states in India, namely Karnataka and Maharashtra, resulting in the isolation of 170 bacterial cultures. Through in vitro evaluation using the dual culture technique, 57 bacterial isolates exhibited inhibitory effects on X. axonopodis growth, with eight isolates showcasing exceptional inhibition rates above 90 per cent. In parallel, fifteen botanical extracts were screened against the pathogen using both aqueous and alcoholic extraction methods. Garlic extract proved to be the most effective, with a significant inhibitory effect. These findings hold significant implications for the development of eco- friendly and sustainable disease management strategies in pomegranate cultivation. Further investigations into alternative extraction methods and underlying mechanisms are warranted to optimize the efficacy of bio-agents and botanicals in combating bacterial blight disease.

Keywords: Pomegranate, bacterial blight, bio-agents, botanicals, and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae.

Ramesh Ippikoppa1*, Kiran Kumar K.C.1, R.K. Mesta1, Kulapathi Hipparagi2, H.M. Pallavi3 and S.Raghavendra3

1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Horticulture, UHS, Bagalkot-587104, Karnataka, India.

2Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture, UHS, Bagalkot-587104, Karnataka, India.

3Department of Biotechnology and Crop Improvement, College of Horticulture, UHS, Bagalkot-587104, Karnataka, India.

E-mail: ramesh.pathology@gmail.com

Screening of bread wheat exotic germplasm for Puccinia triticina resistance with Area Under Disease Progress Curve analysis

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a key grain crop consumed by over 2.5 billion people worldwide. However, multiple diseases have an impact on productivity. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks.) is the most important disease of wheat that causes yield loss. The repeated breakdown of leaf rust resistance genes (Lr9, Lr18, and Lr28) led to the research of adult plant resistance and slow rust resistance genes, which are thought to be more long lasting. Host resistance is the most cost-effective method of controlling wheat leaf and stripe rust. In the current study, 164 exotic bread wheat germplasm were evaluated for disease resistance against stripe and leaf rust under epiphytotic circumstances, and disease severity was assessed using the Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC). All fourteen accessions that were resistant to leaf rust in the field also had reduced AUDPC values. As a result, cultivars with lower AUDPC levels were suitable for practical applications. The current study gave resistant wheat lines to breeders for use in their leaf rust breeding programs.

Key words: Puccinia triticina pathogen, wheat germplasm, Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC).

Waghamare Minal Bhujangrao*1 and Deepshikha2

1*Department of Plant Pathology, Uttar Banga Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar-736165, West Bengal, India. 2Department of Plant Pathology, G.B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar- 263145, Uttarakhand, India

E-mail: minalwaghamare2020@gmail.com

Effect of sowing dates and varieties on severity of white rust in Indian mustard

Many biotic and abiotic stresses are liable for reducing the production and productivity of mustard. White rust caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus Albugo candida is one of the most devastating. The experiment was conducted under field conditions to study the management of white rust during rabi season of 2018-19. The results revealed that in field plots, overall mean of per cent disease intensity (PDI) was 26.68 per cent in 5th November sown crop, whereas it was only 19.82  per cent in 22nd  October sown crop. Hence, it means PDI of white rust in mustard increased with delay in date of sowing. Among the four varieties tested, it was found that Giriraj  in both sowing dates, showed zero per cent disease intensity under Malwa region of Punjab, whereas Varuna found susceptible with maximum mean disease intensity of 34.51 and 45.14 per cent in the crop sown on 22nd October and 5th November, respectively. Alteration sowing time and varietal  screening is an ecologically  and economically viable option for  the management of white rust.

Key words: Albugo candida, disease severity, Indian mustard, white rust.

Amanpreet Singh Sran1, Jasvinder Kaur Sran2, Tannu3, Virender Singh Pahil1, Bihari Singh2 and Bahaderjeet Singh1*

1Faculty of Agriculture, Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda-151302, Punjab, India.

2Department of Environmental Science, Nalanda Open University, Patna-800001, Bihar, India.

3Department of Agriculture, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Ambala-133207, Haryana, India

E-mail: amansran516@gmail.com; sidhubahaderjit@yahoo.in

Post Harvest Technology
Effect of edible aloe vera gel coating and different packaging materials on the postharvest life of strawberry (Fragaria ananasa L.) cv. Sweet Charlie

Owing to the presence of various useful bioactive compounds, the use of aloe vera in different traditional medicines is an age-old practice and has been prevalent since time immemorial. The use of aloe vera gel as a coating agent in edible items has become a matter of constant research in recent decades. Many empirical studies have shown that it has the ability to preserve and extend the quality and shelf life of various perishable agricultural products. The present study sought to examine the effect of different concentrations of aloe vera gel coating and packaging materials on the postharvest life of strawberry cv. Sweet Charlie. The treatment consisted of aloe vera gel (0, 50 and 100%) and packaging materials (polyethylene, brown paper and CFB box). The experiment was laid out in a CRD with four replications. The parameters (shelf life, organoleptic test, fruit size, fresh weight loss, anthocyanin, pH and TSS) were recorded during the study. It was observed that both aloe vera coating and packaging materials had a significant effect on the postharvest life of strawberry fruits. The treatment with 100 per cent aloe vera gel and packaging in polyethylene was found best among all the treatments examined.

Keywords: Aloe vera, aloe vera coating, strawberry, postharvest, packaging.

Ruthy Tabing1*, Daisy Senapoty1 and Tadar Jamja2

1Department of Plant Pathology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

2Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat-785013, Assam, India.

E-mail: ruthy.tabing.adj20@aau.ac.in

Constraints faced by tribals (FPOs) in cultivation, processing and marketing of millets in hilly areas of Andhra Pradesh: A policy perspective

Millets have been an integral part of diets in various regions including India for centuries, as they played a crucial role in providing sustenance to communities that promote cultural and traditional significance. In hilly and tribal areas, millets are major source of livelihood to farmers. Millets are climate resilient crops that can tolerate any kind of climatic conditions. Utilization of hilly tracts and tribal areas for cultivation of millets is need of the hour for long-term sustainability. To increase area under millets ICAR-IIMR formed Millet FPOs in tribal and hilly areas of Coastal Region of Andhra Pradesh. Three tribal FPOs (viz., Lambasingi, Sri Alluri and Sri Matsya Devatha) promoted by ICAR-IIMR, Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh were selected for this study. From each FPO 40 millet growers were selected randomly, thus making a total of 120 millet growers. A well framed interview schedule was  used  for collecting the data and Garette ranking technique was used for analyzing the data. Constraints faced by hilly tribal millet growers are categorized into cultivation, financial and marketing aspects. Poor information access on cultivation aspects to millet growers, lack of credit availability for establishing the millet primary processing unit and traditional processing methods were perceived as major cultivation, financial and marketing constrains by millet growers. Research institutes, extension wings, KVKs and other government institutions may provide suitable infrastructure facility to millet growers in tribal areas to create awareness on processing and value addition of millets in order to generate additional income.

Key words: Hilly areas, millet tribal growers, millet value addition, constraints, processing units.

D.Rafi1, Sangappa1*, K. Chandhini1, K. Ramakiran1, B. Laxmi2 and Sujeet K. Jha3

1ICAR-Indian Institute of Millets Research, Hyderabad-500030, Telangana, India.

2KSN University of Agricultural and Horticulture Sciences, Ponnampet, Shivamogga-577412, Karnataka, India.

3Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR, KAB-1, New Delhi-110001, India.

E-mail: sangappa@millets.res.in

Performance evaluation of twin-row planter for maize crop

A mini tractor drawn twin-row planter was developed and performance was evaluated for maize crop. Two metering mechanisms, namely roller type and cup type metering, were selected and suitable seed boxes for each metering mechanism were developed and evaluated in the laboratory and field conditions. Four forward speeds (10,15,20 and 25 rpm) were selected to evaluate in the laboratory conditions. Parameters like seed spacing, missing and multiple indexes were analysed. Laboratory results showed that seed to seed spacing with cup type metering was 9.5 to 16 cm and with roller type metering was 11 to 20 cm at 10 to 25 rpm belt operational speed, respectively. Missing index was 11.1 to 17.1 per cent for cup type and 2.28 to 15.29 per cent for roller type metering system. Based on laboratory results roller type metering was selected. The spacing between twin-rows was kept 20 cm. Results obtained from field conditions showed seed spacing kept 20 cm of occurred at operating speed of 2.5 kmh-1. Missing index was 10.44 to 27 per cent with an operational speed of 1.5 to 2.5 kmh-1. Field efficiency of developed twin-row planter at 1.5 to 2.5 kmh-1 speed of operation was 76.9 to 87 per cent. Operational cost for developed planter was Rs. 1910.77 ha-1.

Keywords: Field capacity, metering device, missing index, multiple index, twin rows.

A.Ajay*, K.V.S. Rami Reddy, A. Ashok Kumar and Ch. Someswar

Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering, Dr. NTR College of Agricultural Engineering, ANGRAU, Bapatla-522101, A.P., India.

E-mail: ajayarigela1997@gmail.com

Copyright © 2020 Doctor's Krishi Evam Bagwani Vikas Sanstha. All rights reserved.